Chelonian Research Foundation https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB <h1>About Chelonian Research Foundation</h1> <p align="justify">Chelonian Research Foundation, established in 1992 in Lunenburg, Massachusetts, is a non-profit IRS-designated 501(c)(3) tax-exempt private operating foundation established for the purposes of producing and publishing scientific research on turtles and tortoises of the world, as well as supporting worldwide turtle and tortoise research through charitable distributions to associated independent scientific investigators or research organizations that produce specific research consistent with the stated objectives of the Foundation. The Foundation was established partly in response to the rapidly deteriorating natural environment and its deleterious effects on populations of turtles and tortoises of the world as well as the threatening effects of direct human exploitation on turtles and tortoises around the world, and partly in response to the global need for systematic scientific investigations and documentation of the diversity of these animals. The broad purpose of the Foundation is to become involved where the energies of concerned and talented individuals and the application of resources may reasonably be anticipated to provide a scientific basis to allow for potential improvement in conditions or increased understanding of turtles and tortoises.</p> <p align="justify"> </p> Chelonian Research Foundation en-US Chelonian Research Foundation 1071-8443 ENVIRONMENT HEALTH KNOWLEDGE OF STUDENT AT UNIVERSITY FROM DIFFERENT COUNTRIES https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/438 <p>The research focuses on assessing international students' understanding of environmental health in order to improve their knowledge, cognition and perceptions on environmental health issues. we use a mixed methods approach, collecting data through questionnaires and structured discussions. Participants from diverse nations and communities are selected using a diverse sampling technique to ensure inclusiveness. The study aims to identify potential knowledge gaps and growth opportunities, thereby enriching sustainability education among students. Ultimately, the research aims to raise awareness and educate students on environmental issues in order to create a cleaner, healthier future. Empowered students can be key agents of change in environmental conservation efforts. By fostering environmental literacy, students gain a stronger voice in environmental discussions. The survey assesses participants' skills, understanding, and perspectives on the natural world. He highlights the importance of internet communication and medical awareness in discussions about environmental health. A questionnaire including sections on socioeconomic background, environmental and health information, risk perceptions, health-related attitudes and behaviors was used in a longitudinal study involving students from diverse backgrounds.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> learners, health in the community, risk awareness, and opinions about hazards posed by the environment.</p> Fabrice Paulin Ketchagmen Fosso, Fidan Aslanova Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 19 01 566 596 FEEDING HABITS OF INTRODUCED INVASIVE SPECIES PIKEPERCH SANDER LUCIOPERCA (LINNE, 1758) IN THE RESERVOIR OF GHRIB DAM (NORTHWEST ALGERIA) https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/304 <p>When an introduced fish species successfully adapts to new ecological conditions, they significantly reduce the number of indigenous species. This paper aims to determine impacts that introduction of invasive species Sander lucioperca (Linnaeus 1758) has on native fish species in the reservoir of Ghrib dam (western Algeria). The diet of the introduced pikeperch was studied from September 2020 to August 2021. Trophic activity was assessed using the digestive vacuity coefficient (Cv). The index of relative importance (IRI), which combines frequency of occurrence (F), the number (Cn), and restored weight (Cp) of different ingested prey, was used to characterize the relative importance of different food taxa. Qualitative and quantitative variations in diet were studied according to pikeperch size (small, medium and large) and season. In total, 193 stomachs were empty, corresponding to a digestive vacuity coefficient of 44.47%. Qualitative study of stomach contents indicates that this species is omnivorous, with an ichtyophage trend. Three groups of prey were identified: Amphipodan (IRI = 1.03; Gammarus sp.), Dipteran (IRI = 4.73; Chironomus sp.) and primarily fishes (IRI = 94.24; Cyprinus carpio, Rutilus rutilus, and Sander lucioperca). Significant differences in feeding habits occur according to season and pikeperch size, showing also, the risk of cannibalism was highest among the largest pikeperch.&nbsp;</p> <p>KEY WORDS: - Feeding habits, Predation pressure, Sander lucioperca, The Index (IRI), The reservoir of Ghrib dam.</p> Billel Belaifa1,*, Amina Bouamra1, Yasmine I. Arab1, Mohamed H. Kara2, and Abdeslem Arab1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 19 01 364 379 CURRENT TREND IN LAMIACEAE AS A RESPONDING TO NATURAL ELICITORS SPRAYING: FOCUSING ON NATURAL PRODUCTS AND PLANT STRESS. A MINI NARRATIVE REVIEW https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/305 <p>Lamiaceae is the largest family in the order Lamiales, with 236 genera and over 7,000 flowering plant species. Known as the mint family, it is important for its aromatic leaves and medicinal properties. Stresses affect plant physiology, prompting the production of secondary metabolites. Elicitors accelerate secondary metabolite formation in plants. By the present review, Web of Science, Scopus, Google Scholar, PubMed and Science Direct databases were referred to collect information about natural elicitors (amino acids, polyamines, yeast, seaweeds and plant extracts). This present work reviewed the literature from 2015 to march 2024. The aim of this work is to highlight the recent in the impact of natural elicitors on secondary metabolite accumulation and plant stress in Lamiaceae. Foliar spraying of natural elicitors induced changes in plants, such as increased volatiles accumulation and alterations in essential oil composition, phenolic contents, and total flavonoids, as well as antioxidant enzymes. Variations in growth, oil composition, and yield were observed in different plant species in response to drought and salinity stress. The plants adapted by changing their physiological activities to produce secondary metabolites. Spraying Natural elicitors effectively reduces the damage of oxidative stress and mitigates the negative effects of salinity, water deficit, and heavy metals on secondary metabolites in plants of the Lamiaceae family, leading to plants of this family adapting to conditions of various environmental stresses. Review showed that focusing on <em>Ocimum</em> genus; importance of studying various biological extracts especially on plant extracts on Lamiaceae genus, including diverse species like Chia (<em>Salvia hispanica</em> L.).</p> <p>Keywords: <em>Lamiaceae</em>, Natural- Elicitors, Foliar spraying, Secondary Metabolites, Plant Stress.</p> Ismail M. A. M. Shahhat* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-27 2024-03-27 19 01 405 421 DETECTION AND REMOVAL OF SEASONAL AFM1 OCCURRENCE IN VARIOUS MILK SAMPLES COLLECTED FROM DIFFERENT SHOPS OF LAHORE https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/306 <p>Aflatoxin shows carcinogenic results in hepatocellular carcinoma, mutations and primary immunodeficiency disorders.&nbsp; Aflatoxin M1 is found in milk of animals fed on aflatoxin B1 contaminated food. AFM1 detection is being done by different techniques like thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, among these ELISA shows more efficacy regarding its diagnosis because it takes short time, small volume of sample is required, and also its budget friendly. The European Union has set range of AFM1 limit as 0.05 ppb in milk while 0.5 ppb limit by the Food and Drug Administration. In this study a total of 100 milk samples were tested, 50 during summer (25 branded and 25 non-branded) and total 50 during winter (25 branded and 25 non-branded), and the results were compared by using IBM SPSS Statistics 28.0 for windows. Results showed that 6% branded milk samples having Mean ± SD of 1.38±0.255 and 16% non-branded milk samples having Mean ± SD of 1.33±0.462 were found beyond the permissible levels of AFM1 as set by FDA. Brand names were kept confidential due to ethical values while ensuring the integrity and generalizability of the research findings. Seasonal variations showed more contamination in winter than summer, both in branded (6% and 0.0%) and non-branded milk samples (20% and 12%). Four lactic acid bacteria isolated from local yoghurt namely; <em>Lactobacillus rhamnosus</em>, <em>Lactobacillus bulgaricus</em>, <em>Lactobacillus plantarum</em>, and <em>Streptococcus thermophilus</em> showed percentage bound aflatoxin M1 of 78.70%, 54.40%, 50.50%, and 37.10% with Mean ± SD of 55.18±0.173 after 24h incubation period. It is essential to test AFB1 contaminated stored feed daily and apply steps and modern methods to remove aflatoxins from food to ensure health fitness without deteriorating the quality and texture of food.</p> <h1><em>Keywords: </em>Aflatoxin B1, aflatoxin M1, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, lactic acid bacteria, yoghurt, percentage decontamination.</h1> Muhammad Luqman*1, Amina Arif1, Naseem Zahra2, Usman Wajid*1, Sana Abid1 . Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 19 01 422 433 IMPACT OF RESONATING FREQUENCIES OF SOUND WAVES ON LOWER BACK PAIN RELATED TO VERTEBRAL MALALIGNMENT https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/307 <p class="paperbody" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 115%;"><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: windowtext;">Lower back pain is a prevalent global health concern, with the incidence escalating due to an aging and expanding world population. This study aims to evaluate the efficacy of resonating sound waves in alleviating lower back pain associated with vertebral malalignment. A purposive non-probability sampling technique was employed to recruit participants aged 25 to 75 years, experiencing lower back pain linked to vertebral malalignment. The inclusion criteria encompassed mechanical etiologies, such as disc and nerve-related pain, while visible causes like infection, trauma, and tumors (organic causes) were excluded from the study. IBM SPSS and Microsoft Excel were utilized for data entry, graphing, and tabulation. The findings reveal a robust positive trend in reducing pain scores for patients undergoing pulsar treatment (P &lt; 0.001). X-ray analyses demonstrated adjustments to disc spacing, facilitating vertebral realignment into a stable position. A comparison of pre- and post-treatment Numerical Pain Rating Scale (NPRS) scores revealed that resonating sound waves significantly improved pain relief in individuals suffering from chronic lower back pain. This study contributes to the growing body of evidence supporting the potential of resonating sound waves as an effective intervention for alleviating lower back pain associated with vertebral malalignment, thereby addressing a significant global health challenge.</span></p> <p class="paperbody" style="margin-bottom: 0cm; line-height: 115%;"><strong><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: windowtext;">Keywords</span></strong><span style="font-size: 12.0pt; line-height: 115%; color: windowtext;">: Mechanical low back pain, Pulsar treatment, Resonating frequencies, Sound waves, Vertebral malalignment</span></p> Nimra Batool1, Mehrun Nisa1, Faheem Afzal2, Afzal Hussain3, Muhammad Saeed Ahmad4, Saima Batool1, Youssra Ashgar1, Asma Munir1, Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-28 2024-03-28 19 01 434 442 ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF PLANTS, IN SUBURBAN POPULATIONS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF CAMPECHE (MEXICO), FOR THE TREATMENT OF PARASITOSIS. https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/311 <p>Medicinal plants are an important resource for the health of rural residents because they live in areas where infectious diseases, particularly parasitic infections, are very frequent and the lack of health services prevents effective treatment. The objective of this study was to provide an updated critical analysis of the ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants used in the treatment of parasitic diseases in the State of Campeche, Mexico. The ethnopharmacological knowledge of five communities was studied through 247 interviews with prior consent from the informants. The survey was based on a semi-structured questionnaire with simple and flexible language to collect additional information that the residents provided. It was found that in the localities studied there is still social knowledge of the use of plants in the treatment of human parasitosis but this knowledge is at risk because there is no formal dissemination and the transgenerational transmission of knowledge is being lost.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Public Health, Herbal Medicine, Medicinal Plants.</p> Mex-Álvarez Rafael Manuel de Jesús1*,Guillen-Morales María Magali2, Garma-Quen Patricia Margarita3, Yanez-Nava David4, Chan-Martínez Roger Enrique5, May-Suárez Oscar Adrián6 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-04 2024-04-04 19 01 443 456 STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS E AND K ON THE GROWTH PERFORMANCE AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF LABEO ROHITA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/335 <p>An experiment was conducted to find the effects of fat-soluble vitamins E and K on growth performance and antioxidant activity of Labeo rohita (Rohu). There were five treatments, T1 (control treatment) containing 0 mg/kg of vitamin E and K, T2, T3, T4, and T5 (Experimental treatment) containing 200 mg/kg of vitamin E, 500 mg/kg of vitamin E, 200 mg/kg vitamin K and 500 mg/kg vitamin K respectively in diets. Acclimatized Labeo rohita juveniles were transferred to the fisheries research farm of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad and fed twice a day for an experimental duration of six months. Physio-chemical parameters like temperature, dissolved oxygen (DO), pH, total hardness, electrical conductivity, etc. were maintained at their optimum level. Juveniles of Labeo rohita attained maximum growth during the thorough experimental period except in December due to abrupt environmental changes. Experimental treatment T3 (Vitamin E=500 mg/kg) showed maximum weight, fork, and total length that is 11.26g, 2.53cm, and 2.96 cm respectively. At higher concentrations of vitamin E in diet feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and specific growth rate (SGR) were also increased. Catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) activity increased while superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was slowed by high vitamin E concentrations supplemented diets in Labeo rohita. In T3 highest catalase activity (134.03U/ml) and peroxidase activity (0.34U/ml) were observed while the highest (SOD) activity (18.01U/ml) was observed in T1. A significant fluctuation (p≤0.01) in the growth and antioxidant activity of Labeo rohita was determined by statistical analysis during the whole experimental period.</p> Dr Amara Akhtar1, Muhammad Munawar Ramzan1, Misbah tasleem1, Amina zafar1, Nimra Naseer1, Mariam khalid1, Muntah tariq1, Musfira jabeen1, Misha Khalid1, Muhammad Ahmed Saqib1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-06 2024-04-06 19 01 457 467 SOCIO-ECOLOGICAL APPROACH TO INCREASE PARTICIPATION IN PREVENTING HIV TRANSMISSION FROM MOTHER TO CHILD IN KARO REGENCY, NORTH SUMATRA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/350 <p>Transmission of the HIV virus from mother to child poses a heavy burden on public health due to the high mortality rate in children, especially those who do not receive therapy in the first age of life, so efforts to end the transmission of the HIV virus from pregnant women to children are an important milestone in ending the global epidemic by the elimination target set by WHO is the incidence of new infections &lt;50/100,000 live births. The social-ecological framework takes a broad view of efforts to prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV with a focus on various factors related to the program. This research aims to explore the participation of pregnant women, stakeholder participation and stakeholder barriers in efforts to prevent HIV transmission from mother to child. This research is qualitative research with a phenomenological study approach. In-depth interviews and FGDs were conducted with 32 informants consisting of Policy Makers at the Karo District Health Service, Health Workers, Health Cadres, Peer Support Cadres, Pregnant Women, Husbands of Pregnant Women, Community Figures and HIV Observer Organizations. Data were analyzed using Colaizzi's Method. The social-ecological approach contextualizes individual behavior using intrapersonal (e.g. knowledge, attitudes, behavior), interpersonal dimensions(social networks, social support), community (e.g. relationships between organizations/institutions), and public policy (e.g. implementation of Minister of Health regulations regarding mother-to-child HIV prevention programs) to provide a framework that describes interactions between layers so that solutions to individual problems not only found in the individual but solutions may be found in other layers where the individual lives and interacts. Creating sustainable health improvements will be most effective when all of these factors are targeted simultaneously.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em> Social Ecology, Prevention Mother To Child Transmission (PMTCT), Community leader participation,</em></p> Bebaskita Ginting1, R. Hamdani Harahap2, SarmaNursani Lumbanraja3, FazidahAguslina Siregar4 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-19 2024-01-19 19 01 468 485 ENHANCING ANTIOXIDANT STATUS, PRODUCTIVE AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE FOR POST-MOLT BROILER BREEDERS BY USING MACA POWDER (LEPIDIUM MEYENII) https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/351 <p>This study was designed to evaluate the effects of using Maca powder (<em>Lepidium meyenii</em>) in the diet on egg production traits, fertility, hatching characteristics, and some blood parameters for broiler breeders (Arbor-Acres Plus) post-molting. A total of 180 Females and 15 Males, 62 weeks old, Arbor Acres Plus broiler breeders were induced to forced molting with ZnO in diet with a moderate decrease in lighting schedule from 16 to 8 h and feed restriction at 50 g/bird daily. Post-molting birds were randomly divided into three groups according to Maca powder as follows: the 1<sup>st</sup> group (M0) was fed the basal diet without Maca, while the 2<sup>nd</sup> (M1) and the 3<sup>rd</sup> (M2) groups were fed the basal diets supplemented with Maca powder at the levels of 1 and 2g Maca/kg diet, respectively.All groups were replicated into five replicates of 13 birds each (1 male + 12 females). The trial lasted for 12 weeks. According to the present study, the laying rate was significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased by using Maca powder at different levels, without affecting egg weight and egg mass. Furthermore, the fertility rate and hatchability of settable eggs were significantly (P&lt;0.05) increased by using Maca powder at 1 and 2g /kg diet. Additional results showed that using Maca powder significantly (P&lt;0.05) decreased early embryonic mortality rate compared with control. Data indicated that Maca had no significance on the hatchability of fertile eggs, chick weight, and late embryonic mortality rate. The results of blood biochemical parameters revealed that serum cholesterol was significantly (P&lt;0.05) reduced by using Maca powder. Data indicated that TSD and TAOC were significantly (P&lt;0.05) higher in the M1 and M2 groups compared with control. It could be concluded that Maca powder (<em>Lepidium meyenii</em>) administration in diets for post-molt broiler breeders at levels of 1 and 2g /kg could be improved productive and reproductive traits also, enhance antioxidant status.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Maca powder, broiler breeders, performance, antioxidant status, molting</p> Mohammad A. Elsagheer*1 and M. Kh. Wadea2, Nada M. Ali3, Mohamed R. Eletmany*4,5 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-19 2024-01-19 19 01 485 499 MIGRANT LABOUR UPSKILLING – ISSUES AND CHALLENGES FOR SKILL DEVELOPMENT INITIATIVES: https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/374 <p>Today the world is moving towards skill and technology. All sectors are increasingly embracing skilled manpower. Employment protection and opportunity for better earnings are all possible with skilling. Labour productivity can also be achieved with skilling. It is critical from both the socio-economic and demographic points of view. It is an important tool for reducing poverty, enhancing competitiveness and employability and to promote the self-entrepreneurship among youths. However, majority of the workers are employed in the unorganized sector. Working in this unorganized sector provides not much scope for improvement. Migrants constitute a large segment working in the unorganized sector. It is also a well-known fact that because of their inherent drawbacks they are forced to work in the unorganized sector and are exploited. The system of finding work through agents and other means has its own misgivings. They are continuously getting exploited due to the intermediaries in the labour market. The migrant workers face lot of challenges in getting good education, skill training and employment. It is here that the government should step in, if at all they want to make use of the so-called demographic dividend. The government has no doubt taken a great step in this direction by setting up a ministry for skilling and training. Crores of money has been spent on training and placements but the vast majority are still unaware of this herculean effort.&nbsp; The major issue with unskilled migrants is that they are unable to work in the organised sector, which necessitates upskilling. India is not only poised for growth but is growing at a magical pace. When the world is reeling under financial crises, our country is the sun among stars. It is the human resources that has led us to this growth. While skilling and upskilling have all proved its relevance, the government has shown its commitment by enhancing the allocation to skill development initiatives in the present budget. The migrants have expressed their willingness to get trained if some of the bottlenecks are removed. They have stated that the most significant constraints they face are a lack of time after working hours and the possibility of losing daily wages. They are in favour of on-the-job training. However, the unorganized sector does not encourage such training facilities.&nbsp; The government has to bring about a big change in the reach aspect. Also, all these initiatives should be aggressively promoted in the rural areas.</p> <p><strong>Key Words: </strong>Migration, Skill development, Government Initiatives.</p> Dr. Rajini, Dr.M.M.Bagali, Vidya S.Patil Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-13 2024-04-13 19 01 500 510 EFFECT OF MILKING FREQUENCY ON THE HYGIENIC AND NUTRITIONALLY QUALITY OF RAW MILK IN THE MID-NORTHERN REGION OF ALGERIA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/399 <p>The objective of this study was to determine the effects of reduced milking frequency on nutritional and microbiological cow’s milk quality. Once-daily milking on a standard diet (ODM); 3-times daily milking on a standard diet (TDM) cows were assigned from 06 February to 30 May. Cows were on average 218 d into lactation at the start of the trial, and all cows were managed similarly throughout the trial. Milk yields and gross milk composition of cows on all treatments were measured. Results of this study showed a significant decrease in the average milk nutritional quality in TDM as compared to ODM as fat, lactose, protein, casein rates by 15, 8, 3.9 and 5.5% respectively.&nbsp; In addition, TDM decreased the minerals and vitamins levels by 5.8% as compared to milk obtained by ODM. In addition, the application of TDM in the milking affects the milk physical properties by the decrease of the milk conductivity, density and freezing point by 3.29, 1.07 and 8.1% as compared to ODM milk. Moreover, the practice of TDM affects the milk bacteriological quality by the increase of total bacteria count (TBC) (from 11.6 to 13.8), total aerobic mesophilic flora (FMAT) (from 6,4 to 7,8); total coliforms (TCol) (from 4,6 to 5.7); fecal Coliforms (FCol) (from 3,2 to 4.2).&nbsp; Additionally, TDM increase significantly the Sulphite reducing Clostridium (SRC), mods and yeasts counts in milk as compared to ODM.&nbsp; In fact, the improvement of hygienic milking conditions through applying good hygiene practices and new techniques has made it possible to reduce the microbial load of the raw milk samples analyzed. Therefore, the reduction in milk production in ODM was completely compensated by an increase in the concentration of milk components as fat, lactose, protein, casein, minerals and vitamins rates as compared to TDM.</p> <p>Keywords: bacterial flora; improved conditions; raw milk. wholesomeness.</p> Silarbi Tayeb1, 2, Laabas Saadia 2, Tefiel Hakim2, Fatiha Abdellah 3, Ferjeni Zouidi 4, Khaled Hamden 1* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 19 01 511 519 DIAGNOSIS OF THE PLANT BIODIVERSITY OF AN ANTHROPOGENIC ZONE IN ALGIERS: CASE OF THE BOUZARÉAH FOREST MASSIF https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/400 <p>The flora of peri-urban forests is usually understudied compared to other forest types. This flora harbors a plant biodiversity that deserves better understanding. The Bouzaréah forest massif is a geographical area that boasts high biological diversity. It possesses a rich and diverse flora, the characteristics of which need to be determined for sustainable management. Over the decades, this area has experienced continual regression, mainly due to a combined action of climatic, ecological, and anthropogenic factors. 65 phytosociological surveys were conducted in the study area. Plant groups were determined using a modified TWINSPAN classification. For each vegetation group, diagnostic species were selected based on their fidelity index (phi coefficient). We identified 7 plant groups and selected 69 diagnostic species. Results obtained and verified through field investigations show that group 5, a shrubland located on the north-facing slope where conditions are favorable, is the richest and most diversified in plant species compared to other groups. Given the alarming degradation of ecosystems by humans and the current context of climate change, understanding the floristic diversity, structure, and characteristics of different floristic groups is crucial for effective management of urban forest spaces.</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS</strong>: -Structure, Forest formations, Bouzaréah forest massif, Algeria.</p> Safia Abla 1*, Mohammed Djebbouri3, Sabrina Kefil 1, 2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-14 2024-04-14 19 01 520 536 USE OF LAB-GROWN ORGANOIDS IN DISEASE MODELING https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/436 <p>Ensuring accurate and dependable test findings is of utmost importance in clinical labs, making quality improvement essential. Given the growing recognition of the possible negative impact of mistakes in laboratory procedures on patient results, it is crucial to underline the ongoing need for enhancing laboratory services. A systematic literature review was performed on PubMed and the Web of Science Core Collection from October to February 2021 to assess the scientific rigor of medical laboratory quality enhancement studies. Only peer-reviewed articles published in English that satisfied the criteria for quality improvement were considered. Data extraction was performed using a standardized template, and the publications were evaluated using the Quality Improvement Minimum Quality Criteria Set (QI-MQCS) on a scale ranging from 0 to 16. Of the total 776 papers, 726 were assessed for the examination of quality in clinical laboratory literature. The studies were examined based on quality enhancement and monitoring methodologies and interventions, including education, training, task power, and monitoring. The findings revealed that the average rating of QI-MQCS for quality development articles published between 1981 and 2000 was 2.5. In contrast, for papers published between 2001 and 2020, the mean score was 6.8. This suggests a consistent and significant enhancement in quality within the clinical laboratory field. Nevertheless, there is an opportunity to develop a comprehensive framework for evaluating the quality of medical laboratory research and enhancing accreditation initiatives in the field.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> performance assessment, laboratory quality, comprehensive quality management, QI-MQCS</p> Ali Yahya Mater , Mohammed Ali Majari , Mohammed Ali Mohammed Anbari , Hassan Mohammed Ghabesh Ayashi , Afnan Mohammed Kulip Ali , Abdulqader Ali Ahmed Muthaffar ,Yahia Othman Ahmed Ghaish , Mohammed Awadh Almutairi , Walaa Abdulwahed Khalid , Nouf Abdulqader Hassan , Mohammed Amer Asiri , Jameel Abdulrahman Alnemari , Fayez Saleem Aldhaferi , Maha Mohammed Moteq Almotairi , Fawaz Awad Zaben Alenazi Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 19 01 537 544 WATER POLICIES AND FARMERS VULNERABILITY IN GROUNDWATER IRRIGATION SYSTEMS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/437 <p>Throughout most dry and dry parts of worldwide, increased rivalry to supplies of water is turning into an interpersonal, financial, and conservation problem. It's a significant issue in additional dry nations in Europe (such as Spain), the African continent (South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana), and other parts of the world where water consumption, habitat loss, and lack of water are all becoming socially concerning. While social anxieties about the national allocation of water ownership and ecological problems steadily develop in such nations, water challenges and local rivalries to water begin to take center stage on legislative plans and discussions in society. Groundwater supplies, that are becoming scarcer in a lot of cities worldwide, are becoming increasingly important to producers and the numerous businesses that rely on their crops. From cultivating foods that use fewer resources or using the best methods of irrigation, farmers may lower the amount of water they use. Their decisions may have far-reaching effects on farms. The effects and repercussions of excessive water limitations are examined in this paper across particular fields. Together with those involved in agriculture in so many nations, the examination was completed. Financial and technological analyses of the methods and modifications made by growers and daily consumers of water have been carried out in order to address the limited supply of the resource. Interactive seminars emphasized the relationships across owners within a particular category and also among distinct industries by bringing together various operators who may end up competing for an identical asset.</p> <p><strong>Key words</strong>: irrigation, water policies, vulnerability assessment, sustainable crops.</p> Fabrice Paulin Ketchagmen Fosso, Gozen Elkiran Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 19 01 545 565 STUDY THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN GHRELIN LEVEL AND SOME BIOCHEMICAL MARKER IN ANBAR CITY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/303 <p>The results showed that the sex of the patients in the four groups did not reveal any statistically significant differences in the averages of sex (males and females) between the two groups (controlling healthy people). The data showed that there was a significant difference between the averages of the gum disease patients, and the average age of the patients in the four groups included ranged the study ranged from 24.75 years in patients with obesity without the gum disease group to 32.55 years in patients with obesity and the gum disease group, and the data showed that ghrelin parameters varied in their effect on obesity and gum disease, which appeared in their values for the four tested groups studied. People suffering from obesity and gum disease showed the highest significant value in the level of ghrelin, as it was recorded at 189.90 mol/ml compared to 119.30 mol/ml for the control group. The results revealed that all groups of patients had a significant increase in the concentration of T3 compared to the healthy control group, and the patients also Those suffering from obesity without gum disease had a significant increase in T3 levels, which recorded 97.60 ng/dL with a standard deviation of 19.56, compared to 92.40 ng/dL with a standard deviation of 20.17 for the control group. The group of patients suffering from obesity without gum disease showed a low T4 level value, recording 6.96 micrograms/dL, while the control group recorded 7.73 micrograms/dL. The data showed that there was a significant difference in the average TSH level between the studied groups, as the TSH level in patients suffering from obesity and gum disease increased significantly, recording mIU/L with a standard deviation of 1.11 compared to 1.74 mIU/L with a standard deviation of 1.21 for the control group.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:&nbsp;&nbsp; </strong>Obesity, Ghrelin, TSH, gum disease.</p> 1 Abdulrahman Khalid Mssdf Albukhalefah **2 Şevki Adem, 3 Muhammad Hammad Jasim Alajeely, 4 Hussein Ali Nayyef Nayyef Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 19 01 392 404 KINETIN-MEDIATED ALLEVIATION OF CADMIUM STRESS IN MUNG PLANTS: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ANTIOXIDANT RESPONSE AND GROWTH ENHANCEMENT https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/439 <p>Plants exposed to cadmium (Cd) stress have reduced growth, ineffective photosynthetic rate and poor ability to resist any other environmental calamity. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of Kn (kinetin) in alleviating Cd stress in mung plants. Plants of V. radiata were grown in soil contaminated with Cd (100 ppm Cd at 100 /Kg soil) for five days, and then Kn (10 µM) was aerially sprayed onto the leaves in a volume of 10 mL. The plants subjected to Cd stress alone had degraded growth conditions, with RGR, NAR, LAR and TPW reduced by 6.41 %, 59.22 %, 50 % and 6.20 % compared to the control. Interestingly, Kn, an application of synthetic cytokinin, improved growth conditions by 55 % in RGR, 30.12 % in NAR and 19.40 % in LAR and TPW 14 % compared to control. The underlying mechanism for growth enhancement by Kn was the induction of higher antioxidant activity. The Kn-treated seedlings had higher production of antioxidant enzymes such as peroxidase (POD) (50.87 %) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (32.61 %) and antioxidant secondary compounds such as TPC (59.21 %), TFC (26.35 %) and proline (28.07 %) compared to the control. This increase in antioxidant activities was due to the complementation of Kn with endogenous IAA (indole-3-acetic acid), GA4 (gibberellic acid) and tZ (trans-zeatin) in the seedlings as these were high in level (30.84 %, 19.21 %, and 35 % respectively) compared to the control. In contrast, these antioxidant activities were reduced in Cd stressed seedlings compared to the control and therefore growth was severely suppressed. Hence, the mechanism of Kn to induce antioxidant activity was due to complementation with endogenous IAA, GA4 and tZ for higher antioxidant response and growth enhancement.</p> Naveed Ali1, Muhammad Junaid Yousaf1*, Fawziah A. Al-Salmi2, Maha AlHarbi3, Amr Elkelish4, Siham M.AL-Balawi5, Aisha Siddique6, Fawad Ali6*, Imad Gul7, Abdul Manan8 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-16 2024-04-16 19 01 597 617 ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL STUDY OF PLANTS, IN SUBURBAN POPULATIONS OF THE MUNICIPALITY OF CAMPECHE (MEXICO), FOR THE TREATMENT OF PARASITOSIS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/462 <p>Medicinal plants are an important resource for the health of rural residents because they live in areas where infectious diseases, particularly parasitic infections, are very frequent and the lack of health services prevents effective treatment. The objective of this study was to provide an updated critical analysis of the ethnopharmacology of medicinal plants used in the treatment of parasitic diseases in the State of Campeche, Mexico. The ethnopharmacological knowledge of five communities was studied through 247 interviews with prior consent from the informants. The survey was based on a semi-structured questionnaire with simple and flexible language to collect additional information that the residents provided. It was found that in the localities studied there is still social knowledge of the use of plants in the treatment of human parasitosis but this knowledge is at risk because there is no formal dissemination and the transgenerational transmission of knowledge is being lost.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Public Health, Herbal Medicine, Medicinal Plants.</p> Mex-Álvarez Rafael Manuel de Jesús1*,Guillen-Morales María Magali2, Garma-Quen Patricia Margarita3, Yanez-Nava David4, Chan-Martínez Roger Enrique5, May-Suárez Oscar Adrián6 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-17 2024-04-17 19 01 618 631 ASSESS THE APOPTOTIC EFFECT OF CRUDE EXTRACT OF ROOT POWDER OF WITHANIA SOMNIFERA IN BREAST CANCER CELL LINE https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/575 <p><strong>Background:</strong> Cancer is one of the greatest health challenges in the developing countries. About half (51%) of cancers occurred in developing countries in 1975. In 2018, this proportion was 55% in 2018 and will projected to reach 61% in 2050. Notably, breast cancer alone contributes to 30% of female cancer cases. It was evident that bioactive component (withaferin –A) of root of <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; has capacity to work against the breast cancer. In this present study, the crude methanolic extract of root of <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; screened for in vitro apoptotic activity on MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cell line.&nbsp; In Ayurveda, <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; is commonly known as Ashwagandha, its roots are specifically used in medicinal and clinical applications. It possesses numerous therapeutic actions which include anti-inflammatory, anticancer, sedative, hypnotic and narcotic.</p> <p><strong>Objectives:</strong> To Assess the apoptotic activity of crude extract of root of <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; on breast cancer cell line.&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods:</strong> MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 breast cancer cell lines, DMEM complete media, 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS), MEM nonessential amino acids, gentamicin and 10μg/mL insulin. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells were treated with different concentration of sample (crude extract of root powder of <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; for 24 hrs incubation. Cytotoxicity was measured by MTT assay. The morphological change of untreated (Control) and treated cells were observed under digital inverted microscope and photographed.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The lower concentration of sample show less cytotoxic activity on both cell line MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Higher concentration of sample show more cytotoxic activity on both cell line MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231.The IC<sub>50</sub> value of crude extract of root powder of <em>Withania somnifera</em> against both MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 was determined.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions:</strong> The crude methanolic extract of root of <em>Withania somnifera</em>&nbsp;&nbsp; have anticancer potential but additional studies required.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Apoptosis, <em>Withania somnifer</em>, cancer, MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, withaferin A.</p> Anni1 and Munawar Fazal2* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-20 2024-04-20 19 01 632 643 ASSOCIATION OF HISTOPATHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND TERT (TELOMERASE REVERSE TRANSCRIPTASE) IMMUNOEXPRESSION WITH METASTATIC RATE IN CUTANEOUS MALIGNANT MELANOMA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/668 <p>Cutaneous malignant melanoma (MM) is a malignant tumor with a high mortality rate. Histopathological characteristics are prognostic predictive factors of cutaneous MM, in which tumor thickness &gt;2 mm and mitotic rate ≥5/mm<sup>2</sup> correlate with a worse survival rate. A mutation in MM can occur at telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter region, which leads to unlimited cell proliferation. Telomerase also increases metastatic risk. This study aims to determine the association between histopathological characteristics and TERT immunoexpression with metastasis in cutaneous MM. The study samples are 30 metastatic and 30 non-metastatic cutaneous MM in the Anatomical Pathology Department FKUI/RSCM, from January 2011 to July 2023. Histopathological characteristics (tumor thickness, mitotic index, lymphovascular invasion, and perineural invasion) were assessed, and anti-TERT antibodies were used for immunohistochemistry staining. Histopathological characteristics and TERT immunoexpression data were analyzed to determine their association with metastasis. Histopathological features that correlate significantly with metastasis are tumor thickness &gt;2 mm (p=0.006) and mitotic index ≥5 mitosis/mm<sup>2</sup> (p=0.008). Multivariate analysis showed a significant association between high TERT immunoexpression and metastasis in cutaneous MM (p&lt;0.001, aOR=56.1). This study concludes that high TERT immunoexpression increases the metastatic rate in cutaneous MM. Greater tumor thickness and a higher mitotic index are associated with metastasis in cutaneous MM.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma; Immunohistochemistry; Metastasis; TERT</p> Riesye Arisanty 1, Bayu Perkasa Rosari 2*, Puspita Eka Wuyung 3, Maria Angela Putri Maharani 4 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-22 2024-04-22 19 01 CAFFEINE ISOLATION AND CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROFORM FRACTION FROM ETHANOL EXTRACT OF DURIOKUTEJENSIS AGAINST T47D CELL LINE https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/810 <p><strong>Background and Aims</strong>: Approximately 19 of 28 species of durian were grown in Borneo. One of them, Duriokutejensis (<em>durian pulu</em>) have not been explored for its potential in anti-cancer treatments. This study aimed to isolate chemical compounds and to evaluate the cytotoxicity of the crude extract and isolated compounds from the chloroform fraction of durian pulu’s stem bark against breast cancer T47D cell line.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The extracts were screened for phytochemicals such as flavonoid, terpenoid, alkaloid, saponin, tannin, polyphenol, and anthraquinone. The vacuum liquid chromatography (VLC) technique was employed to extract fractionation. Isolation and purification were performed using Sephadex column chromatography. The structure of the pure compound was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis (1H NMR, 13C NMR, COSY, HMBC, and HMQC). The extract and isolated compound were tested against T47D by MTT assay. One compound, caffeine, was isolated from the chloroform fraction.</p> <p><strong>Result</strong>: The IC50 values of ethanol extract and caffeine of the stem bark were 331.82 and 361.59 µg/mL, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The findings showed that both the crude extract and its isolated compound have no potential of cytotoxic activity against breast cancer T47D cell line.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Breast Cancer, Caffeine, Cytotoxic, DurioKutejensis, Phytochemical, T47D Cell Line</p> Amaliyah Dina Anggraeni, AghniaFuadatul Inayah, Haryoto Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-27 2024-04-27 19 01 665 674 PHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES AND BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES OF OLIVE MILL WASTEWATER https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/818 <p>Olive Mill Wastewater (OMWW) is a significant environmental challenge due to its high organic matter content, particularly 1phenolic compounds, which can inhibit microorganism growth and cause pollution in surface water, soil, and ecosystems. Despite its pollution, OMWW is also a rich source of natural antioxidants, including polyphenols, which have various potential health benefits. This study focuses on the in vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and antioxidant activity of OMWW collected from traditional oil mills in Fez, Morocco, and Tizi Ouzou, Algeria. Physicochemical characterization revealed variations in pH, electrical conductivity, dry matter content, water content, ash content, organic materials, fat, suspended matter, polyphenols, and flavonoids between the two sources. Moroccan OMWW exhibited higher polyphenol content, known for its antioxidant properties. Bacteriological analyses indicated the absence of total aerobic mesophilic flora, total and fecal coliform, and <em>Staphylococcus aureus</em> in the studied OMWW, suggesting its potential antimicrobial properties attributed to its acidity and the presence of antimicrobial substances such as phenolic compounds. Moroccan and Algerian OMWW exhibited antibacterial effects against various bacterial strains, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) ranging from 3% to 14%.&nbsp; The antioxidant activity of OMWW was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) tests, with Moroccan OMWW demonstrating slightly stronger antiradical and reducing power activities. This research highlights the promising potential of OMWW as a natural antimicrobial and antioxidant agent, potentially serving as a valuable source of bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Olive mill wastewater, Antioxidant activity, Antibacterial activity, Polyphenols.</p> Fatiha Abdellah1’2,*, Khaled Hamden2, Tayeb Silarbi1’2, Laid Boukraa1, Si Mohamed Hammoudi1and Rachida Benaraba1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-28 2024-04-28 19 01 500 518 ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY AND PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF THE PHENOLIC FRACTION FROM OLIVE OIL AGAINST LIPID PEROXIDATION INDUCED BY H2O2 AND FECL3 https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/819 <p>Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and iron can be toxic to human cells and produce highly reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radicals (OH•). These ROS can damage cellular components like DNA, proteins, and lipids, leading to cell injury or death. Olive oil is one of the most important components of the Mediterranean diet characterized by many therapeutic proprieties and health protective effects, mainly attributed to its high content of monounsaturated oleic acid, vitamin and polyphenolic compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the <em>in&nbsp;vitro</em> antioxidant activity of the phenolic extracts of two Algerian olive oil varieties (Chemlal and Sigoise) and to determinate their protective effect against lipid peroxidation. We have used Folin-Ciocalteu reagent method to estimate the phenolic content of the studied extracts. The antioxidant activity was determined using three different antioxidant assays (DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power and hydrogen peroxide<strong> s</strong>cavenging assay). The protective effect of olive oil extract against lipid peroxidation was evaluated in an <em>in vitro</em> model of rat liver homogenates through the production of TBARS. The quantitative analysis results showed that the phenolic extracts of Algerian olive oil are rich in phenolic compounds mostly flavonoids, with the highest content found in Chemlal oil (366.095± 1.01 mg GAE/Kg for polyphenols and 79.065± 0.84 mg QE/Kg for flavonoids). Moreover, the studied extracts showed very important anti-free radical activity and reducing power, wherein Chemlal oil exhibited the highest antioxidant activity.&nbsp; The tested extracts demonstrated a strong protective effect against lipid peroxidation, with Chemlal olive oil showing the highest protective effect. These findings confirmed the medicinal use of Algerian olive oils as natural agents in food and pharmaceutical industries</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; olive oil, polyphenols, oxidative stress, biological activities.</p> Fatiha Abdellah1’2, Khaled Hamden2, Tayeb Silarbi1’2, Noura Ayad 1, Laid Boukraa1, Si Mohamed Hammoudi1 ,Rachida Benaraba1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-28 2024-04-28 19 01 519 532 RUTA CHALEPENSIS LEAF EXTRACT'S PROTECTS METABOLIC INDICES ABNORMALITIES, TYPE 2 DIABETES, AND VARIOUS ORGANS TOXICITIES IN OBESE RAT https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/822 <p>Plant phenolics have been used as food supplements due to their capacity to prevent several ailments<em>. </em><strong>Aim:</strong>The effects of Ruta chalepensis extract (RCE) on α-amylase activity, type 2 diabetes, and lipid profile induced by obesity.<strong>Methods</strong><em>: </em>obesity was induced by a high-fat, high-fructose diet.&nbsp; Obese rats were given either RCEor acarbose daily by gastric gavage. <strong>Results</strong>:In a dosage-dependent manner, Ruta chalepensis extracts dramatically reduced pancreatic α-amylase activity in in vitro research<em>.</em>. RCE therapy in obese rats decreased blood glucose levels by 22% by decreasing the activities of intestinal, pancreatic, and blood α-amylase by 25, 22, and 27%, respectively and improved insulin sensitivity evidenced by oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Additionally, biochemical analysis and histological examination demonstrated that giving RCE to those with type 2 diabetes who had been exposed to HFFD corrected their lipid profiles and preserved their liver and kidney functions.<strong>Conclusion</strong>:This study shows that RCE is a beneficial functional food for diabetics due to its ability to control lipid profiles, blood glucose levels, and protect against liver and kidney toxicity.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong><em>Ruta chalepensis</em>, type 2 diabetes, lipid profile, α-amylase</p> <p><strong>Running title:</strong>Ruta chalepensis, diabetes and liver-kidney functions in obese rat</p> Ferjeni Zouidi Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-04-27 2024-04-27 19 01 675 685 EXPLORING LOCAL WISDOM THROUGH PROJECT-BASED LEARNING: A CASE STUDY OF THE APPLICATION OF ETHNOSCIENCE MODELS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/823 <p>Local wisdom is a valuable cultural heritage and needs to be preserved. One way to preserve it is to integrate it into learning. This research explores how the ethnoscience model can be applied in project-based learning to explore local wisdom. This research uses a qualitative approach. The data collection technique in this research is a literature study. The data that has been collected is then analyzed in three stages, namely data reduction, data presentation, and drawing conclusions. The research results show that the ethnoscience model is an effective tool for exploring local wisdom through project-based learning, which can be implemented by identifying local wisdom, organizing projects, combining knowledge, developing critical thinking skills, and implementing an ethnoscience approach. The ethnoscience approach can be carried out by reconstructing natural science in the customs and culture that exist in society to be developed into scientific science. Applying the ethnoscience model can help students understand scientific concepts, increase curiosity and interest in science, appreciate local wisdom, and develop 21st-century skills.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Local Wisdom, Project Based Learning, Ethnoscience Model</p> Oria Lasmana1*, Festiyed2, Yerimadesi3, Abdul Razak4, Muhyiatul Fadilah5 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 19 01 686 693 POTENTIAL IMPACT OF CARBON TAX IMPLEMENTATION ON THE AGRICULTURE SECTOR IN INDONESIA, SPECIFICALLY THROUGH CARBON TAX IMPOSITION ON ENERGY USE https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/824 <p>Indonesia has agreed to comply with the Paris Agreement, which includes a commitment to restrict and control emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs). The commitment is reinforced by the submission of the Enhanced NDC document mandating the higher emission reduction target in each scenario. The instrument of carbon pricing to implement soon is carbon tax, which is applied to emissions resulting from energy consumption. The agriculture sector, a substantial component of Indonesia’s economy, is experiencing growth as a result of revitalization through mechanization revolution leading to a heightened reliance on energy consumption. These arguments indicate that although the carbon tax is a component of Indonesia’s efforts to decrease greenhouse gas emissions, its impact on the agriculture sector must be cautiously controlled. The objectives of this study are to: 1. Estimate the potential revenue from carbon tax across all sectors, including agriculture; 2. Estimate the impacts of implementing carbon tax on the performance of the agriculture sector, including output, employment, and income levels. The result shows that the potential carbon tax revenue in Indonesia from all economic sectors is IDR 5,025,641,983,076.-. The agricultural sector has the potential to generate tax revenues of IDR 418,242,180.-. These are vary small compared to others’ most practices. There is a potential decline in the level of agricultural sector output of IDR 16,366.3 million and employment of 17,884,082 workers. At the subsector level, the largest decline for both indicators occurred in the Non-edible crops subsector. In terms of income, there is a potential decline as much as IDR.26,656.76 million. The distribution pattern of income reduction between classes due to the tax burden tends to be progressive. On the other hand, the intensity of income decline in each class tends to be regressive. Thisresults recommend that there should be mitigation in implementing the carbon tax in Indonesia using any appropriate strategies.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> agriculture, carbon tax, output, employment, income, regressive</p> Syahrituah Siregar1*, Luthfy Fatah2, M. Handry Imansyah2, Sunardi2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 19 01 694 713 IN VIVO AND IN VITRO TOXICITY EVALUATION OF IRON FROM RED SEA FISH PRODUCTS AND THE INFLUENCE OF OXIDATIVE STRESS: A POTENTIAL RISK TO HUMAN HEALTH. https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/825 <p>Fish species from the Red Sea constitute an excellent food source but are also unsafe to consume because their content of iron (Fe) is greater than the recommended level. We looked into the safety issues connected to the ingestion of iron-rich fish. Fe(II) and Fe(III) were administered to Wistar rats at a dose of approximately 200 mg/kg body weight.Hepatic cell lines (WRL-68, HepG2 and FTO2B) were subjected to iron for cytotoxicity tests.After that, H2O2 was added as a pretreatment to FTO2B cells in order to mimic oxidative stress.The <em>in vivo</em> findings demonstrated that only the Fe2+ treatment altered significantly (P &lt; 0.05) aminotransferase activity relative to the control and increased antioxidant enzyme activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration. The cell lines did not exhibit toxicity from iron, which is commonly found in Red Sea fish, according to the in vitro results.On the other hand, the detrimental effects of H2O2 on FTO2B cells were enhanced by the addition of Fe(III).Additionally, the data showed that superoxide dismutase gene expression was elevated (P &lt; 0.05) following exposure to Fe(III). The data obtained indicates that consuming fish products from the Red Sea may provide a potential risk of toxicity.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords</em></strong><em>:</em><em>Fish; Food quality; Iron; Cytotoxicity; Oxidative stress </em></p> Saber Abdelkader Saïdi1, 2 *, Othman Ahmed AlGhamdi1and Josvan Pelt3 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-10 2024-05-10 19 01 714 731 THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE SELF-MANAGEMENT HYPERTENSION (SMH) APPLICATION IN INCREASING KNOWLEDGE AND SELF-EFFICACY OF THE ELDERLY WITH HYPERTENSION IN MAKASSAR CITY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/826 <p>Poor knowledge and low compliance of the elderly with hypertension (HT) in terms of self-care, such as low adherence to medication, not maintaining diet, weight management, and physical activity, require different strategies in designing health education for the elderly with HT. A critical component in predicting self-care behavior is self-efficacy, which refers to people's beliefs about their ability to perform at a certain level of performance and includes a person's confidence to do an excellent job of self-care (Bandura, 1983). The effect of the application on improving the literacy and self-efficacy of the elderly with HT in terms of self-care of HT disease has been proven effective based on several research results in the world.</p> <p><strong>Research Objective</strong>: This study aims to see the effectiveness of SMH applications in increasing the knowledge and self-efficacy of elderly patients with HT.</p> <p><strong>Method</strong>: This study used <em>a quasi-experimental</em> design with <em>a pre and post-test control group design</em>. Samples of 80 older adults with HT in the treatment group and 40 elderly samples with HT were given therapy using the SMH application accompanied by an application use module. In the control group, 40 elderly samples with HT were given health education about self-management plus pocketbooks.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Wilcoxon test results showed significant differences in knowledge before and after treatment in both the control and intervention groups and self-efficacy<em>(p&lt;0.05).</em> Changes in pre- to post-test scores mainly increased (98%) in the control group, while in the intervention group, all elderly (100%) experienced increased knowledge and self-efficacy.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: SMH application-based interventions effectively increase knowledge and self-efficacy in the elderly with hypertension.</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Effectiveness, SMH Application, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, Elderly with Hypertension</p> Hilda Harun, Ridwan Amiruddin, A. Arsunan Arsin, Abdul Salam, Mondastri Korib Sudaryo, H. Muh. Syafar, A. Ummu Salmah, Sudirman Natsir Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-05-18 2024-05-18 19 01 731 745 EFFECTIVE STRATEGIES FOR REDUCING HEALTHCARE-ASSOCIATED INFECTIONS: A COMPREHENSIVE REVIEW FOR NURSING PRACTICE" https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/827 <p>Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) pose a significant challenge to patient safety and quality of care in healthcare settings worldwide. Despite advancements in infection prevention and control practices, HAIs continue to exert a substantial burden on healthcare systems, contributing to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. Nurses, as frontline caregivers, play a pivotal role in mitigating the risk of HAIs and promoting a culture of infection prevention within healthcare settings. However, several challenges and barriers hinder the effective implementation of infection control measures, including resource constraints, time pressures, knowledge gaps, resistance to change, communication barriers, and patient factors.</p> <p>This comprehensive review explores effective strategies for reducing HAIs, with a specific focus on the role of nursing practice. Drawing upon current evidence and best practices in infection prevention and control, the paper discusses key principles, innovative approaches, challenges, and future directions in the field. Strategies for addressing obstacles to infection control implementation, such as investment in resources, ongoing education and training initiatives, fostering a culture of safety, leveraging technology, and promoting interdisciplinary teamwork, are highlighted.</p> <p>By empowering nurses with knowledge, tools, and support to enhance infection control efforts, healthcare organizations can strengthen their capacity to prevent and control HAIs, ultimately improving patient safety and quality of care. The paper concludes with a call to action for healthcare stakeholders to prioritize infection control efforts and collaborate in implementing evidence-based strategies to address this critical issue.</p> <p>This abstract provides a concise summary of the paper's focus, key findings, and recommendations, offering readers a preview of the comprehensive review on reducing HAIs through nursing practice.</p> <p><u>kevwords cover various aspects of the topic:</u></p> <p>Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs ,lnfection prevention ,Nursing practice, Patient, Hand hygiene, Personal protective equipment (PPE),safety, Environmental cleaning, Antimicrobial steward ship Interdisciplinary collaboration, Evidence-based practice,</p> <p>SurveillanceCompliance ,Education and training ,Culture of safety, Communication, Innovative approaches Resource allocation, Barrier reduction, Patient engagement</p> Saleh Jebaan Alhareth, Hanan Hassan Almaqsudi, Fatimah Ali Almarhabi, Fatimah Qassem AL-Jaidan, Afaf Abdullatif Alkhamis, Seham Abdulatif Alkhamis, Jameelah Abdulaziz s Almuhsin, Sahar Mubarak Al Hatrash Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-20 2024-02-20 19 01 746 760 DANGEROUS HEAVY METAL POLLUTION AND NITRATE AND PHOSPHATE CONCENTRATION CONTAINED IN THE SEAWEED THALLUS (Kappaphycus Alvarezii and Gracilaria Verrucosa) https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/210 <p><em>Kappaphycus alvarezii</em> seaweed is a key local commodity in Central Sulawesi. However, since 2012, its production has drastically decreased, especially in mining exploration centers such as the coastal waters of Morowali Regency and Palu Bay. Mining activities, including nickel mining in Morowali, gold mining in Poboya, and other mining operations in Palu, have led to changes in land use, transforming areas into mining concessions. This situation raises significant concerns as both mining commodities and seaweed are crucial regional assets for driving the local and national economy. Mining activities have resulted in a substantial reduction in the area of <em>Kappaphycus alvarezii</em> cultivation in Morowali Regency, decreasing from 78,420 ha in 2011 to 8,410 ha in 2014. Data from the Central Sulawesi Provincial Fisheries Service reveals a significant decline in dry <em>Kappaphycus sp</em> production from 2016-2020, reaching 383,360 – 59,129 tons/year, with no production expected in 2021. Similarly, E. spinosum and <em>Gracilaria sp</em> production have also experienced declines from 2018-2021. The results of the research show that the nickel content in the thallus of seaweed along the Morowali waters is very high and can be dangerous and is thought to be the cause of the extinction of the seaweed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Seaweed, Mining, Exploitation, Extinction</p> Zakirah Raihani Ya’la,Ali Husni , Tri Joko Santoso, Triyani Dewi , Marhawati, Maemunah, Eka Rosyida, Samliok Ndobe, Faisal Haris Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-21 2024-02-21 19 01 ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 FROM BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS AND ESTIMATION OF ITS MOLECULAR WEIGHT https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/170 <p>The study was carried out in the city of Mosul during the period 3/1/2022 until 6/1/2023 and included 75 people with bladder cancer, 68 males and 7 females, whose ages ranged between 50-80 years. The study included the isolation and purification of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme from blood serum. Patients with bladder cancer and studying its characteristics using techniques of salt displacement, membrane sorting, and ion exchange chromatography, and estimating its approximate molecular weight by electromigration technique. The study was carried out in the laboratories of the College of Science/University of Mosul. The results showed the presence of one distinct peak for the protein solution, and the purification process was relatively effective, with recovery of more than 50.82% of the enzyme activity. The approximate molecular weight was estimated using the electrophoretic migration technique, as a distinctive protein band was found that was used in estimating the approximate molecular weight of the enzyme, which is equal to (72). ) kilodaltons, and the optimal conditions for measuring enzyme activity were 5 minutes for reaction time, 7.5 for pH, temperature of 40°C, and 0.6 mM concentration of the substrate.</p> <p>Keywords: bladder cancer, cyclooxygenase-2, salt displacement precipitation, membrane sorting, ion exchange chromatography, electromigration technique</p> Mohammed Hussin Mousa1, Mohammed Bahry Hasan2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-21 2024-01-21 19 01 MANGROVE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN ARIYANKUPPAM ESTUARY, PUDUCHERRY, INDIA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/172 <p>True mangrove species and associate mangrove species are the two categories into which the plant life in a mangrove habitat is divided. While associated species are present in both the mangrove ecosystem and its environs, true mangrove species are exclusively found in mangrove wetlands. There are 69 plant species recognized to be true mangroves worldwide. The present study aim to find out the true mangrove diversity in Ariyamkuppam, Puducherry. Six true mangrove floral species from three families, three orders, and the same class were recorded. One true mangrove was threatened Species in IUCN Red data book.</p> Silpa.P & Dr.T. Ramanathan* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-26 2024-01-26 19 01 32 38 COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM) ON DYSMENORRHEA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/174 <p>Objectives: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence regarding the complementary alternative medicine on primary dysmenorrhea.</p> <p>Method: This systematic review study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. The literature search was done using Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist, including an explanation of sample size, explanation of sample methodology, calculation of response rate, findings/results measurement, explanation of the statistical analysis, confounding control, explanation of study limitations, and research ethics. Three independent reviewers participated in data extraction and assessment. Total of 20 out of 3,825 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for review.</p> <p>Results:&nbsp; This review included 36 RCTs; the meta-analysis included 48 RCTs. Most studies showed a low or unclear risk of bias. The characteristic of the articles is the use of a clinical/controlled trial and quasi-experimental study design with the intervention target being the complementary alternative medicine on primary dysmenorrhea, the quality of the articles is categorized as good, and the measurement tools used are questionnaires and interviews. The cause of primary dysmenorrhea is often associated with high levels of inflammation in the endometrium. Elevated prostaglandin levels respond to the rise and fall of progesterone after ovulation. Overproduction of prostaglandins in the endometrium will result in hypercontractility and vasoconstriction of the myometrium. Vasoconstriction of the uterine blood vessels will reduce blood flow, muscle ischemia, and increase sensitivity to pain receptors, all of which cause period pain. Prostaglandin levels in adolescents with dysmenorrhea were twice as high as those without dysmenorrhea</p> <p>Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that acupuncture might reduce menstrual pain and associated symptoms more effectively compared with no treatment or NSAIDs, and the efficacy could be maintained during a short-term follow-up period.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: complementary and alternative medicine; dysmenorrhea; students</p> 1Nilam Noorma, 2Masni, 3 Andi Zulkifli, 4Andi Mardiah Tahir Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-27 2024-01-27 19 01 39 54 PROMOTION OF DENTAL AND ORAL HEALTH THROUGH THE GIGIKU SEHAT APPLICATION AND HEALTHY DENTAL GYMNASTICS WITH TEACHER ASSISTANCE ON TEETH CLEANING ACTIONS TO PREVENT CARIES IN CHILDREN AGED 10-13 YEARS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/175 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Caries is one of the chronic diseases experienced by 2.4 billion or 36% of the world's population. Globally, school children who experience caries account for 60%-90% due to lack of health promotion. Mobile mobile&nbsp; is one of the health promotions that can improve the degree of public health.</p> <p><strong>AIM:</strong> Knowing the effect&nbsp; of the application of healthy teeth&nbsp; and healthy dental gymnastics with teacher assistance on the act of cleaning teeth to prevent caries in children aged 10-13 years.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> The study was conducted at Makassar City Elementary School, South Sulawesi in September 2022 - March 2023. The type of research is a mixed method with two stages of research, stage 1 making healthy dental applications with&nbsp; qualitative methods and stage 2 educational model intervention for 3 (three) months&nbsp; with quasi-experimental methods&nbsp; with&nbsp; the design of the non randomized pretest postest control group design. The number of samples were students of SD Hang Tuah 64 people, SDN Ujung Tanah 54 people and SDN Cambaya 49 people. The research group was divided into 3 (three) with teacher assistance, namely First is SD Hang Tuah with a combination intervention of healthy dental application&nbsp; and healthy dental gymnastics. The second is SDN Ujung Tanah with the intervention of my healthy teeth application. The third is SDN Cambaya with healthy dental gymnastics intervention.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The level of oral hygiene at SD Hang Tuah was significantly different before and after the intervention, while at SDN Ujung Tanah and SDN Cambaya there was no significant difference but there was a difference in mean value.&nbsp; The DMFT scores in the three schools have significant differences, especially&nbsp; the mean value&nbsp; in the Filling aspect&nbsp; has increased which is an indicator of increased awareness to treat caries.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> The effect of dental health education&nbsp; with the application of healthy teeth and&nbsp; / or healthy dental gymnastics with teacher assistance statistically had a significant effect on SD Hang Tuah, while SDN Ujung Tanah and SDN Cambaya did not have a significant effect but there was a difference in mean values on improving oral hygiene. The DMFT value before and after the intervention statistically has a significant effect, especially in the Filling aspect, there is an increase in the mean value&nbsp; which is an indicator of increased awareness to treat caries.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Caries, oral health promotion, oral health behavior</p> Muhammad Nurung1, Andi Zulkifli2, Sudirman Nasir3, Wahiduddin4, Santi Martini5, Harun Achmad6, Anwar Mallongi7, Fridawaty Rivai8 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-01 2024-02-01 19 01 55 65 ENSHRINEMENT SPATIAL PATTERN IN BUMIAYU TEMPLES (DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION IN WET LAND) https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/190 <p>The Bumiayu temple is located in wetlands, but the temples are protected from puddles. The problem that arises are a) how is the location of Bumiayu temples, b) how is the network in Bumiayu temples area and c) how is the distribution of the Bumiayu temples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the spatial pattern of the Bumiayu enshrinement which shows that the people-built temples had adapted to nature. The specific aims are to analyze the morphography, morphometry, landform of the Bumiayu temples, b) to analyze water activity in Bumiayu temples c) to analyze the distribution and orientation of the Bumiayu temples. The qualitative method is used with descriptive and expansive reasoning, precisely the order using the Widyamanti classification (2016). The distribution/orientation of the temples uses data proximity analysis. The results showed that the Bumiayu temple area was lowland with an elevation of 11 masl - 20 masl and was on a rather sloping (8 % - 13 %). The landform consists of the river terrace, natural embankment, swamp. The enshrinement area consists of 4 rooms bordered by rivers and lakes. Location is in a group position and surrounded by canals that tributaries of the Lematang River. In the past, the community had managed the environment. They made canals to regulate water and transportation facilities in Bumiayu temple area. In addition, the canal also serves to fulfil practical and ritual needed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> pattern, wet land, temple Bumiayu</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> Sondang Martini Siregar Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-02 2024-02-02 19 01 66 79 THE APPLICATION OF DEEP LEARNING IN ANALYSING ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS FOR IMPROVED PATIENT OUTCOMES. https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/191 <p>Deep learning techniques like neural networks show promise for extracting insights from electronic health records (EHRs) to enhance clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes. Recurrent and convolutional approaches demonstrate particular efficacy for predictive tasks based on longitudinal EHR data. However, significant barriers around model interpretability, data constraints, and real-world integration must still be addressed for broader adoption. This paper reviews recent literature on deep learning for EHR analysis including predictive modelling, imaging, and patient risk stratification. Based on promise but with challenges remaining, recommendations focus on methods to enable translation into clinical practice through improved user-centered design. If key next steps around transparency and standards are achieved, hybrid deep learning EHR systems hold immense potential to augment data-driven precision medicine.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Deep Learning, Electronic Health Records, Clinical Decision Support, Patient Stratification, Neural Networks, GAN, CNN, RNN</em></p> Sathishkumar Chintala Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-02 2024-02-02 19 01 DOCUMENTATION OF FOLK KNOWLEDGE ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS OF RAMPACHODAVARAM AGENCY DIVISION, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/192 <p>Folklore medicinal uses of 23 species of Wild edible plants belonging to 21 genera of 20 families for various ailments among the tribes of Rampachodavaram or Rampa agency division of Alluri Sitharama Raju (ASR) district, Andhra Pradesh is reported along with local name, mode of administration and prescribed doses. Local people use leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots as a part of their diet. Present study reveals the importance of 23 species of plants as they are eaten substantially by village folk as well as by city dwellers. It is desirable to bring these plants under organized agriculture as new crops to increase their production and utilization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Edible wild plants, Folk knowledge, Folk medicines, Tribal diet.</p> Pampayya Thanthati1, Dr. S. Sandhya Rani2* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-03 2024-02-03 19 01 89 95 FORMULATON AND EVALUATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES CONTAINING DOXORUBICIN AND CURCUMIN-PREFORMULATION STUDIES AND ACTIVITY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/196 <p>Many controlled delivery strategies have been developed in recent years in an effort to increase the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of medications that are poorly absorbed. Lipid nanoparticles have particularly intriguing qualities when it comes to delivering drugs or genes. These systems, made up of lipids stabilized with surfactants. A flexible drug delivery method called solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) has been formulated with homogenization process and formulation was optimized .This work aimed to synthesize solid lipid nanoparticles containing curcumin and doxorubicin. Results were found satisfactory from the preformulation examination consisting of solubility studies, particle size and LOD with no incompatibility issues with the excipients. Entrapment of both drugs in SLNs have increased the pharmacological activity compare to that available in crude drug form. In-vitro release kinetics shows sustained release with initial burst effect. The linearity was established in the concentration of 0.2- 10μg/ml for curcumin and 0.015 - 62.50µg/mL for doxurubicin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chemotheraphy, Chromatogram,Solid lipid Nanoparticles,Doxorubicin, Anticancer agent, Curcumin</p> Rahul Singh,Vikrant Verma, Aadesh Kumar, Nidhi Dhama Copyright (c) 2023 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-05 2024-02-05 19 01 96 110 MODULATORY EFFECT OF PTEROSTILBENE ON TAIL TENDON COLLAGEN IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/198 <p>Introduction: The research was determined to investigate on the effects of pterostilbene and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) on the collagen content and its physical and chemical characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.</p> <p>Purpose:&nbsp; Ptrerostilbene and THC has been tested clinically and found to be effective in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p>Experimental design:&nbsp; In the experiment, a total of 24 rats (18 diabetic surviving rats, 6 normal rats) were used.&nbsp; The rats were divided into four groups of six each, after the induction of STZ diabetes.&nbsp; The experimental period was 45 days. Group 1: Normal rats. Group 2: Diabetic control rats. Group 3: Diabetic rats treated with THC (80 mg/kg body weight) in aqueous suspension daily using an intragastric tube for 45 days. Group 4: Diabetic rats treated with pterostilbene (40 mg/kg body weight) in aqueous suspension daily using an intragastric tube for 45 days</p> <p>Results: In the case of diabetic rats treated with pterostilbene and THC, the collagen content was significantly decreased.&nbsp; The extent of glycation, cross-linking and collagen linked fluorescence were significantly reduced.&nbsp; In addition to that, the collagen content in the  region as well as in the high molecular weight region in tail tendon was near normal when compared to diabetic control groups.&nbsp; The reduction in the advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in pterostilbene and THC treated rats to their antiperoxidative activity directly influence the collagen cross-linking and advanced glycation end products formation.</p> <p>Conclusion: The administration of pterosilbene and THC had a positive influence on the content of collagen and its properties in streptozotocin and nicotinamide diabetic rats. The pterosilbene administration was found to be more effective than THC.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> tetrahydrocurcumin, pterostilbene, collagen, streptozotocin, nicotinamide, blood glucose, plasma insulin</p> Pidaran Murugan1*, Sivaprakasam Maneemegalai2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-06 2024-02-06 19 01 111 125 MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GLUME DIVERSITY OF CYPERACEAE IN WESTERN HIMALAYAN REGION OF PAKISTAN https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/200 <p>Cyperaceae is cosmopolitan in distribution and widely distributed in western Himalayan regions of Pakistan, but limited studies have been conducted on identification &amp; classification of family at both molecular and morphological perspective. In this study western Himalayan region of Pakistan were explored to collect species previously not studied and submitted to Pakistan Museum of Natural History for future use. 20 species were selected from collection and different quantitative &amp; qualitative parameters were studied. Eight micromorphological features of specimens that includes glume shape, glume length, glume width, presence or absence of arista, glume color, midrib width, midrib color and detailed surface of glume; of these specimens were observed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.&nbsp; These species showed 12 types of glume shape and great variation in color of both glume and midrib. Similarly, length and width of glume has wide range, and two types (Narrow, Broad) of midrib were observed in this study. Arista was present in most of species and were absent in only few species. On basis of this study, it can be said that glume morphology can be great help in correct differentiation of morphological identical species that looks similar but distinct. These results can play major role in identification of said region species at morphological level.</p> Iqra Shah1,3*, Hafiz Imran Fakhar1, Muhammad Qasim Hayat1*, Muhammad Shahbaz1, Madeeha Khan1, Beenish Anjum1, Kaleem Ullah1,2, Affan Ahmed, Umme Laila1, Saleem Haider1, Ammar Ashar1, Ijaz ul haq1, Jasia Farooq1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-09 2024-02-09 19 01 126 139 USE OF CODED QR AS A MODEL CHANGING THE BEHAVIOR OF TRADERS AND BUYERS TRADITIONAL PEOPLE'S MARKET https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/201 <p>Each stakeholder must manage healthy environmental quality through their duties and functions to achieve a clean, safe, comfortable, and healthy People's Market. Implementing healthy behavior by traders, buyers, and visitors to public markets is one effective way to create and control healthy public markets. Pocketbooks, videos, and posters are integrated into QR codes. This media contains guidelines for healthy public markets and for clean and healthy living behavior, which is expected to help the public increase compliance in keeping markets clean and healthy. This research aims to find out the delivery mechanism, media either through QR barcodes or other easy methods for buyers, traders, and visitors to understand to change their behavior using a quantitative descriptive approach. The population in this study were market residents (traders and buyers/market visitors). The sample in this study used a quota sampling technique of 40 people, data collection using closed questionnaires, quantitative descriptive data analysis in the form of percentages, QR Barcode submission to change the behavior of participating market residents to keep the people's market healthy, QR Code on the banner via WhatsApp social media. Benner QR Barkot is installed at all gates; video media is the easiest to learn and takes 2-3 days. WhatsApp groups and direct discussions are expected to be an alternative for evaluating healthy people's market implementation.</p> 1*Darwis, 2Dihamri, 3Fikitri Marya Sari, 4Ade SisscaVillia Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-10 2024-02-10 19 01 140 148 TRYPANOSOMES, A BLOOD PARASITE OF RAJIDAE (ELASMOBRANCHII, RAJIFORMES) OFF THE ALGERIAN COAST. https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/203 <p>Trypanosomes were found from the blood of tow rajidean fishes (Raja miraletus and Raja asterias) off the central Algerian coast. We described shortly and illustrated this blood protozoan parasites, based on morphological characters. Light microscopy and Immunofluorescence were used for the observation and study of these parasites.&nbsp; Drawings were scanned and redrawn with Adobe Illustrator CS5.1. Specific characteristics such as&nbsp;&nbsp; and morphometric measurements are within the ranges given in previous description by Laveran and Mesnil 1904 of rajidean trypanosomes. Unfortunately, there is no vouchers available for comparison of rajidean Trypanosoma of the type host. Thus, as hosts are different, and localities are widely separated. This is the first record of Trypanosoma off Algerian cost.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS</strong>: -Protozoans, Parasites, Trypanosoma, Mediterranean Sea, Rajidae.</p> Sabrina Kefil 1,2*, Safia Abla 1, Chahinez Bouguerche 3, Katia Yata 1, Philippe Grellier 4, Nadia Kechemir-Issad 2. Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-12 2024-02-12 19 01 149 161 TO OBSERVE THE LOCALISATION OF PLACENTA IN RELATION TO PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION AND IT'S FETO-MATERNAL OUTCOME https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/206 <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>To observe the localization of placenta in relation to previous cesarean section and its feto-maternal outcome</p> <p><strong>Materials and method:</strong></p> <p>A cross sectional study was conducted among 246 Eligible participants (participants with previous LSCS and current pregnancy ≥ 20 weeks) Detailed history including menstrual history, obstetrics history, past history, personal history, marital history, family history of the patient was taken. General and obstetrical examination were carried out. All women were undergone to transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound. Determining the placental location or any abnormal placentation with the transabdominal obstetric scan done between 28 weeks period of gestation and 42 weeks period of gestation, reassessed after 36 weeks or when patient presents in labor or with bleeding per vagina. The patients are followed up to delivery and the maternal and fetal outcomes are noted.</p> <p>&nbsp; <strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;The mean age of the study participants was 28.69 years among which 90.7% of the cases were booked History of previous one LSCS was reported among 71.1% of the women while 28.9% were having two LSCS. Placenta previa was observed among 14.2% of the women who had previous history of LSCS. Fundo-posterior and fundo-anterior placenta was seen among 37.8% and 14.6% of the women respectively. Fundo-lateral and low-lying placenta were seen among 24% and 9.3% of the women respectively. Placenta previa and accreta are the major factors for post-partum hemorrhage Proportion of preterm birth was 10.1% Proportions of meconium-stained liquor and poor APGAR score (&lt;7) were observed among 4.5% each of the study participants.</p> <p>Placenta previa was identified in 14.2% of women with a history of LSCS. To reduce the occurrence of placenta previa, it is important to reduce the number of primary cesarean procedures and promote vaginal births. For optimal care, if a patient must have c-section, routine prenatal examinations and identification of high-risk groups should be performed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cesarean section, Placenta previa, Maternal outcome, Fetal outcome.</p> Dr. Radhika Parmar, Dr. Deepa Kirar, Dr. K Padma Sandeepthi, Dr.Yashika Jain Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-02-16 2024-02-16 19 01 162 183 CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PANIC DISORDERS P THERE IS HYPERTHYROIDISM ACCOMPANIED BY TONSIL HYPERTROPHY AND THYROID EYE DISEASE WITH ECG PICTURE SICK DYSFUNCTION NODE https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/168 <p>Background: Hyperthyroidism is an endocrine disorder with the second highest incidence rate after diabetes, and Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Objective: To determine the characteristics of patients with panic disorder in hyperthyroidism with an ECG picture of sick node dysfunction. Methods: This study is a Systematic Review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis or com method. This method is carried out systematically following the correct stages or research protocols. The source was taken from the PubMed site, and the Google Scholar site with journals published in 201 7-2022 and then filtered the results as many as 15,486. Results: Journal clustering was carried out and obtained the number of journals indexed in Scopus Q1 as many as 2 journals, Q2 as many as 2 journals, indexed Sinta S1 as many as 1 journal, so that there were 5 extracted journals. Conclusion: The majority of journals discuss age and lifestyle associated with the characteristics of panic disorder, as well as the factors of hyperthyroidism determined by age, and hyperthyroidism associated with panic disorder, ECG picture of sick node dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Characteristics Patients, Hyperthyroid</em>, Panic disorders, Sick Nodus Dysfunction<em>, </em>Hyperthyroidism.</p> R. Mohamad Javier 1*, Satrio Wicaksono 2, Basyar Adnani 3, Nabila Ramadina 4, Kelvin Florentino Kaisar 5, Moh Iqbal Setiawan 6, Arief Dewantara 7, Asti Yumna Adiningrum 8, Vania Putri Salsabilla 9, Budi Prakoso 10, Pertiwi Febriana Chandrawati 11, Subandono Bambang Indrasto 12 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-01-19 2024-01-19 19 01 OVERUSE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN DENTISTRY. A CRITICAL REVIEW https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/228 <p>Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has been on the rise worldwide because of excessive and inappropriate use of antibiotics in healthcare. Dentists account for 10% of all antibiotic prescriptions, primarily used to treat oral infections and prevent postsurgical problems. Recent research and clinical assessments emphasize new therapy strategies that involve decreasing antibiotic dosages and prescriptions. Prioritizing precise diagnosis and enhancing oral health before dental procedures and in patients' everyday routines is essential. This article identifies and summarizes the most frequent clinical and operative scenarios in dental practice, including endodontics, acute alveolar abscess management, extractive oral surgery, periodontology, and implantology. It suggests potential guidelines to decrease antibiotic prescription and usage while maintaining high success rates and low complication rates. The patient categories that need antibiotics for existing conditions are also summarized. Establishing particular standards for antibiotic therapy is crucial in reducing the potential of antimicrobial resistance. Recent evaluations show that in dentistry, lowering antibiotic use by carefully evaluating patient conditions and interventions might enhance efficacy, decrease unwanted effects, and promote individualized treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Antibiotics, Oral infections, Antimicrobial resistance, Dental medicine.</p> Faisal Alshail*, Turki Almohaid Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-02 2024-03-02 19 01 213 224 PROLANIS PROGRAM (DIET, MEDICATION, AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY) ON GLYCEMIC CONTROL OF TYPE 2 DM PATIENTS IN MAKASSAR CITY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/229 <p><strong>Background</strong>: Blood sugar levels in people with diabetes can be controlled by managing a healthy diet and doing physical exercise. Diabetes mellitus treatment is one of the treatments included in the National Health Insurance (JKN) program in Indonesia. In the JKN era, the Diabetes Mellitus type 2 Chronic Disease Management Program was made one of the programs of the BPJS which was renamed the Program Pengelolaan Penyakit Kronis (Prolanis).</p> <p><strong>Aim:</strong> Knowing prolanis program (diet, medication, and physical activity) on glycemic control of type-2 DM patients</p> <p><strong>Method:</strong> The study was conducted in November 2023-Januari 2024 at Puskesmas Kassi-Kassi and Puskesmas Kalukubodoa. The number of samples at Puskesmas Kassi-Kassi was 183 people, and Puskesmas Kalukubodoa was 168 people with a total sample of 351 people with quantitative research methods using questionnaires.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Based on the results of research conducted on 351 respondents, it can be explained that there were more respondents with a good diet, namely (92.6%), taking medicine according to doctor's recommendations, namely (91.2%). Respondents with moderate physical activity were (92.6%), and respondents with controlled glycemic control were more, namely (93.7%). The statistical test results obtained each p value = 0.000, this means that there is an effect of diet, medication, and physical activity (gymnastics) on the glycemic control of patients with type-2 diabetes.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: In the prolanis program, there is an effect of diet, medication, and physical activity (gymnastics) on the glycemic control of type-2 DM patients in Makassar City.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Diet, Medication, Physical Activity (Gymnastics), Glycemic Control, Type-2 DM</p> Sheinni Paradise1*, M. Alimin Maidin1, Amran Razak2, Abdul Rahman Kadir3 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-05 2024-03-05 19 01 225 235 THE EFFECT OF COMPLETE FEED SUBSTITUTION WITH COFFEE PEEL WASTE ON THE PERFORMANCE OF THE FINISHER PHASE PIGS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/280 <p>The primary objective of this research was to assess the impact of incorporating coffee husk waste as a complete feed replacement ingredient on pig performance. A total of 36 crossbred pigs, originating from Sterbyderby and Kirk, Topper and Exotic, and Abraham and Kirk, were subjected to a comprehensive study employing a 4-treatment, 3-repetition design. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the inclusion of coffee husk waste as a partial substitute for the ration, alongside various treatment methods such as sun-dried, soaked, and boiled coffee husks, exhibited no statistically significant differences (P&gt;0.05) in ration consumption.</p> <p>However, the study did unveil significant differences (P&lt;0.01) in body weight gain and ration efficiency (P&lt;0,05) at the coffee skin substitution level. In contrast, The specific treatment of coffee skin had no significant impact on both body weight gain and ration efficiency (P&gt;0.05), and the interaction between the two factors also did not yield significant differences (P&gt;0.05).</p> <p>In summary, this study affirms the potential of coffee skins as a substitute feed ingredient in select pig rations, with the most promising outcomes observed at a 5% substitution level with boiled treatment.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Substitution, Coffee Peel, Pig farming</p> Mien T.H Lapian, Petrus R.R.I Montong. Hapry F.N.Lapian Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 19 01 236 242 THE CONTINUATION OF THE COCONUT PRODUCT COOPERATIVE IN NORTH MALUKU PROVINCE, INDONESIA https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/281 <p>The coconut plant, long known to the people of Indonesia, is widespread throughout the<br />archipelago. As a strategic commodity, coconut plays a crucial role in the social, cultural, and<br />economic aspects of Indonesian society. Coconut production in Indonesia reaches 18.3 million<br />tons, making it the highest in the world. This research aims to analyze the condition of sustainable<br />livelihood assets within coconut processed product cooperatives using the pentagon model. Data<br />collection involves average asset values based on categories such as Human Capital, Natural<br />Capital, Financial Capital, Social Capital, Physical Capital, Entrepreneurship Capital, and Political<br />Capital. The analysis results show variations in the average asset values, with Physical Capital and<br />Entrepreneurship Capital having the highest values, while Political Capital has the lowest. This<br />indicates that coconut processed product cooperatives excel in physical, financial, and<br />entrepreneurial aspects, while also strengthening political support and social capital.<br />Keywords: Sustainable Livelihood, Coconut Commodity</p> 1Munawir Muhammad, 2Djoko Koestioni, 3Syafrial, 4Riyanti Isaskar Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 19 01 243 257 STRATEGY TO INCREASE THE COMPETITIVENESS OF LOCAL VEGETABLES AGAINST IMPORTED VEGETABLES IN PEKANBARU CITY, RIAU: A REVIEW OF CONSUMER LOYALTY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/282 <p>One nutritional element that is crucial for good health is vegetables. The body needs a variety of nutrients, including vitamins, minerals, and fiber, which are found in vegetables. Local and imported veggies are the two categories of vegetables that are often consumed in Indonesia. Finding out what factors affect consumers' loyalty to imported and local veggies is the aim of this study. This study employs a comparative methodology and quantitative research techniques. In this study, questionnaires, observations, and literature reviews were used as data gathering methods. The SPSS software is then used to examine the data that has been gathered. The findings demonstrated that the elements most influencing consumer loyalty to local and</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong><em>Consumer: </em><em>Competitiveness</em><strong> , </strong><em>Local Vegetables, Imported Vegetables</em></p> Mery Berlian, Abdul Wahib Muhaimin, Nuhfil Hanani, Silvana Maulidah Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-08 2024-03-08 19 01 258 266 ADAPTATION OF BRASSICA NAPUS SEEDLINGS TO VARIOUS BIOTIC AND ABIOTIC STRESSES UNDER DARK AND LIGHT REGIMEN https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/284 <p>Roots of the plants are highly sensitive to interaction with abiotic or biotic components of the soil environment. During current study, 7 days old seedlings of hydroponically grown B. Napus were exposed to different biotic and abiotic stresses including AgNO3, Cinnamic acid, and Pseudomonas syringae under light and dark regimes. Also, the effect of different concentrations of nutrients was analysed by growing the B. Napus seedlings in 1 X, 0.5 X, 0.25 X of Hoagland solution. Data of root exudation of secondary metabolites with to respect to growth rate was noted for each treatment at the end of the week for each abiotic and biotic stress under dark and light at 24, 48 and 72 hours. It was noted that roots of dark grown seedlings exuded remarkably higher quantities of IAA and phenolics as compared to the control. Contrary to this, light exposure reduced the exudation of these secondary metabolites by B. Napus seedlings. Silver nitrate antagonistically affect the seedlings in dark due to the inhibition of the level of IAA, phenolics along with flavonoids and significantly reduced the growth rate. However, under the effect of 200mM cinnamic acid, the growth rate of seedling was improved with the inhibition of secondary metabolites in light condition. Interestingly, exudation of phytoalexins was not influenced conditions of light or dark while silver nitrate reduced its exudation from root in light. In the presence of CA, the light factor became an important modulator of phytoalexins exudation showing contrasting response. As expected, greater availability of nutrients(1 X Hoagland solution) positively influenced the release of secondary metabolites by roots. The effect of 200Mm of AgNO3 and P. syringae was adverse on B. Napus as both inhibited the level of overall exudation of flavonoids and phytoalexins in dark grown seedlings.</p> Fawad Ali1, Farhad Ali1*, Ibtisam M. Alsudays2, Siham M.AL-Balawi3, Zahid Khorshid Abbas 3 Muneera A. Saleh4, Roobaea Alroobaea5, Muhammad Junaid Yousaf6 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-12 2024-03-12 19 01 267 282 AGROBİOLOGİCAL PARAMETERS OF SOME LOCAL, AND İNTRODUCED COLLECTİBLE GRAPE VARİETİES, GROWN İN THE CONDİTİONS OF THE ABSHERON DİSTRİCT https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/291 <p>The article presents the results of the research work on the study of agrobiological parameters, morphological and technological characteristics of some local (Ag pishraz, Gara kechimemesi, Gara pishraz, Gara urza, Gara khatyny, Gozal uzum, Gomushimeme, Galshan, Ganja kechimemesi, Khalbasar) and introduced (Danaburnu, Dekabrskiy, Janjal kara, Dnestrovskiy rozovy, Doina, Ichkimar, Cardinal, Kuljinskiy, Moldova, Muscat Italian, Pobeda, Presentabill, Sultani, Taifi pink, Tuya tish) collectible table grape varieties grown in the conditions of the Absheron district.</p> <p>In the course of the scientific-research work, classical and modern research methods were used, such as the Mann-Whitney Wilcoxon U-criterion, the Student's t-criterion, the Pirson χ<sup>2</sup> criterion, mathematical and statistical analysis, digital description of varieties according to the international ampelographic descriptors and assessment of prospects of varieties according to the “ideal variety” innovative model, proposed by the OIV, etc.</p> <p>As a result of mathematical and statistical processing of the data obtained during the study, it was revealed that the yield indicators of the studied grape varieties Ichkimar, Muscat Italian, Pobeda, Presentabill, Taifi pink and Tuya tish significantly exceed the control variety Danaburnu. For the rest of the varieties, the difference with the control variety was insignificant.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> grapes, bunch, introduced variety, yield, quality, mathematical and statistical analysis, collection garden</p> V.S.Salimov, A.S.Huseynova, S.Ş. Abdulaliyeva, M.M. Alekberova, F.A.Aslanova Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-13 2024-03-13 19 01 283 293 EFFECT OF SPRAYING NANO-AMINO ACIDS AND IRON ON SOME YIELD CHARACTERISTICS AND THE CHEMICAL AND MEDICINAL CONTENT OF TWO CULTIVARES OF FENUGREEK PLANT, TRIGONELLA FOENUM-GRAECUM L https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/292 <p>The experiment was carried out in the nursery of the Agricultural Division of the University of Kufa in Najaf Governorate for the season 2022-2023 to study the effect of spraying nano-amino acids and iron on some yield characteristics and the chemical and medicinal content of two varieties of the fenugreek plant, <em>Trigonella foenum-graecum </em>L., the local variety and the Indian variety.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The experiment included eight treatments. It is an interaction between two varieties of fenugreek plant (local A1 and Indian A2) with four spray treatments: T1 control (distilled water), T2 (200 mg. L<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>) nano-iron, T3 (2 ml. L<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>) nano-amino acids, and T4. (200 mg.L <strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>+ 2 mL.L<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>) nano-iron and nano-amino acids. A factorial experiment was carried out using a completely randomized design (C.R.D) with two factors: varieties and spray treatments, with three replicates. The means were compared according to Duncan's multinomial test at the probability level of 0.05.</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Measurements were taken at the end of the growing season. The results showed that foliar spraying of nano-amino acids and iron led to improvement in yield&nbsp; indicators and the chemical and medicinal content of all studied&nbsp; traits compared to control plants. The results of the study also showed that the T3 treatment (nano amino acids) gave the highest rates in most of the traits under study (pod length, number of pods, number of seeds, Choline, Peroxidase and Catalase when interacting with the local variety A1, as it reached 11.03 cm, 54.63 (pod. Plant<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>), 14.00 (seed. pod<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>), 0.44, 1.55, 1.42 (mg. ml<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>), respectively. As for the Indian variety A2, it gave the highest rate of the alkaloid Trigonelline when interacting with treatment T3, amounting to 0.79( mg. ml<strong><sup>-1</sup></strong>).</p> <p><strong>Keywords: Fenugreek, nano-iron, nano-amino acids, Trigonelline, Choline.</strong></p> Amel Hussein khudhiar AL- Ibraheemi1 , Saadon Abdul-Hadi Saadon AL-Ajeel2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 19 01 294 308 STUDY OF THE BACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF SILVER NANOPARTICLES (AGNPS) PRODUCED USING CYNOPHYTA ALGA EXTRACT (SPIRULINA PLATENSIS). https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/293 <p>The study included the production of biologically produced silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) by the algae extract <em>Spirulina</em> <em>platensis</em>, as well as the diagnosis of some effective chemical compounds from the blue-green algae <em>S</em>.<em>platensis</em> and the evaluation of the inhibitory effectiveness of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against some types of pathogenic bacteria that included <em>Escherichia</em> <em>coli</em>, <em>Pseudomonas</em> <em>aeruginosa</em> and <em>Staphylococcus</em> <em>aureus</em>.</p> <p>Different concentrations of silver nanoparticles (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2) mg/ml were prepared to study their effect on the types of bacteria studied by determining the area of ​​diameter of bacterial growth inhibition. The silver nanoparticles showed their microbial effectiveness against two isolates of Gram-negative bacteria, <em>E.coli</em> and <em>P</em>.<em>aeruginosa</em> and the isolate of Gram-positive bacteria <em>S</em>.<em>aureus</em>, where the average diameter of the inhibition zone for the concentrations used was 12.58, 13.75 and 15.24 mm, respectively, by the diffusion well method. Bio-synthesized silver nanoparticles from the algae extract <em>S</em>. <em>platensis</em>, at very low concentrations, proved effective against the bacterial species studied.</p> <p>The results of drug susceptibility testing using the disk method showed that all bacterial isolates were 75% resistant to the antibiotics Amoxicillin, Chloramphenicol, Ciprofloxacin, Clindamycin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole and Tetracyclin, while 25% were sensitive to the antibiotics Imipenem and Piperacllin/Tazobactam. The results of the drug susceptibility test using the Vitec system also showed that the <em>E.coli</em> bacteria were resistant to the antibiotics Ampicillin, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Cefazolin, Cefoxitin, Ceftazidime, Ceftriaxone, Cefepime, Imipenem, Ciprofloxacin, Levofloxacin, Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole at a rate of 73.3% , As for the antibiotics Amikacin, Gentamicin, Tigecycline and Nitrofurantoin, the sensitivity rate was 26.7%. As for the <em>P</em>. <em>aeruginosa</em> bacteria, it was 100% resistant to all antibiotics used. The <em>S</em>.<em>aureus</em> bacteria resisted the antibiotics Benzylpenicillin, Oxacillin, Ciprofloxacin, Erythromycin, Clindamycin, Tetracycline, Fusidic Acid and Rifampicin by 57.1%, while the antibiotics to which it was sensitive included Moxifloxacin, Linezolid, Teicoplanin and Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazole by 42%. 9%.</p> Dhuha Raheem Azooz Abbood1, Zainab Abd Ameer Mohammed2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 19 01 309 321 A COMPARATIVE ANATOMICAL STUDY OF THE LOWER EPIDERMIS OF LEAVES OF THE GENUS AEGILOPS https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/294 <p>In this paper leaf structure of Six Iraqi species of<em> Aegilops</em> L. have been anatomically examined. It was observed that the anatomical characters have high variation in the length of long cells in both stomatal and non- stomatal rows, length and number of stomata in microscopic field, the number of short cells, indumentum properties such as type of prickle hairs and macro- hairs, the blade and keel outline, the shape of abaxial and adaxial sclerenchyma, and bulliform cells arrangement, Finally the study show that anatomical characteristics of the leaf blade vary between studied taxa.</p> <p><strong>Key</strong> <strong>words</strong>: Anatomy,<em> Aegilops</em>&nbsp; , Poaceae, Variation</p> Hijran Mohammed Obaid Al- Dulaimi, Ruqayah Manoon Hasan Alnomani Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-19 2024-03-19 19 01 322 333 A QUALITATIVE STUDY TO EXPLORE KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND DIETARY BEHAVIOR IN PREVENTING NUTRITIONAL PROBLEMS DURING PREGNANCY https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/298 <p>Anemia during pregnancy is a condition where hemoglobin levels are below 11 gr/dL during pregnancy. In Indonesia, one in two pregnant women experiences anemia. This is exacerbated by the occurrence of chronic energy deficiency during pregnancy. Conditions of anemia and chronic energy deficiency that continue during pregnancy will cause various health problems including the health of the fetus in the womb, even after birth, which has less than optimal growth and development. This research aims to identify determinant factors in preconception nutrition education and develop a framework for preconception nutrition education modules to prevent anemia and chronic energy deficiency during pregnancy. This research method is qualitative by conducting in-depth interviews with pregnant women, women in reproductive health, and health workers which location in Depok City, Indonesia. Data analysis uses thematic analysis. The results show how the importance of education for prospective brides regarding pre-conception nutritional preparation is provided by including elements of ideal pregnancy indicators, balanced nutritious food, and ways to prevent anemia and chronic low energy. The aim of preparing the module was to increase knowledge about healthy pregnancy and avoid nutritional problems, have an attitude that supports nutritional fulfillment and a healthy lifestyle, and have good dietary behavior, especially in regulating food intake. A digital educational media prototype has been created at the following link http://edukasiprakonsepsi.biz.id/Aplikasi_Catin/. The suggestion from this research is that health facilities need to give education about the pre-conception nutritional use of media to make it easier to access information repeatedly.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Education; Pre Conception; Anemia</p> Ratna Wulandari1, *Ahmad Syafiq2 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-21 2024-03-21 19 01 334 344 A FUTURISTICS APPROACH FOR HARNESSING GREEN ENERGY: FROM POND SCUM TO POWERHOUSE ALGAE’S JOURNEY AS BIO-FUEL https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/301 <p>Bio-fuel is the fuel produced over a short period from biomass, rather than by the very slow natural processes involved in forming fossil fuels, such as oil. Bio-fuel can be produced from plants, agricultural, domestic, or industrial bio-waste. Algae is the term used for a large and diverse group of eukaryotic organisms that are photosynthetic and have chlorophyll as their primary photosynthetic pigment. Algal biomass contains a very high oil fraction and can be used for bio-fuel production. Various algal strains, Botryococcus braunii, Chlorella, Dunaliella tertiolecta, Gracilaria Pleurochrysis carterae, Sargassum, and others have been found to successfully and efficiently produce *biodiesel. Mechanism of biofuel production includes transesterification and esterification of oil with alcohol. This review mainly focuses on the various algal strains isolated from various sites that are responsible for bio-fuel production, production mechanisms, and various applications of bio-fuels.</p> <p><strong>Keywords: </strong>Biomass, Fossil fuels, Photosynthetic, Chlorophyll, Biodiesel, Transesterification, Esterification</p> Shiwangi Bharti1, Varsha Gupta1, Mansvi Yadav1, Deepesh Kumar Neelam1, Devki1, Ravi Kant Rahi1* Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 19 01 345 363 EFFECT OF SOME MEDICINAL PLANTS ON LABORATORY ANIMALS EXPOSED TO ALUMINUM POISONING https://acgpublishing.com/index.php/CCB/article/view/302 <p>Aluminum is recognized as a public health concern because of its potential toxic effects on human health. Therefore, the current experiment was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of medicinal plants that include Cucurbita pepo and Ganoderma lucidum in reducing the toxicity induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3) in animals. In this experimental study, thirty male rats were allocated to six groups. no treatment (control), AlCl3 (40 mg/kg B.W.), Cucurbita pepo, Ganoderma lucidum, Cucurbita pepo +AlCl3, Ganoderma lucidum+AlCl3, for 28 days.&nbsp; On the final day, animals were sacrificed, Indices of body weight, liver, kidney, spleen, blood component parameters, biochemical parameters of liver and kidney function, and antioxidants were estimated. AlCl3 treatment resulted in a significant decrease (P&gt;0.05) in the values of RBCs, HCB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, GRAN PLT and Glutathione. a significant increase in WBC, MON and liver, kidney, body weight, uric acid, Urea, Creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP and Malondialdehyde. There was no significant difference in LYM and Spleen weight compared with the control group. As for the groups of both Cucurbita pepo+ Aluminum chloride and Ganoderma lucidum+ Aluminum chloride led to a significant decrease in WBC, MON, uric acid, Urea, Creatinine, ALT, AST, ALP and Malondialdehyde. Increase in body weight, RBCs, HCB, HCT, MCV, MCH, MCHC, GRAN, PLT and Glutathione. No significant difference in Spleen weight and LYM comparison with the group infected with aluminum chloride poisoning. The present study concluded that Cucurbita pepo and Ganoderma lucidum had beneficial effects as they were able to reduce cadmium chloride toxicity in male rats.</p> <p>Key word: Cucurbita pepo, Ganoderma lucidum, aluminum chloride, haematological, Biochemical parameters.</p> Abd-Alhadi Ibrahim Hussein Al Jumaily1, Adnan Mohammed Ahmeed Aldulaimi1 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 2024-03-26 2024-03-26 19 01 380 391