Chelonian Research Foundation 2024-02-16T03:44:42+00:00 Open Journal Systems <h1>About Chelonian Research Foundation</h1> <p align="justify">Chelonian Research Foundation, established in 1992 in Lunenburg, Massachusetts, is a non-profit IRS-designated 501(c)(3) tax-exempt private operating foundation established for the purposes of producing and publishing scientific research on turtles and tortoises of the world, as well as supporting worldwide turtle and tortoise research through charitable distributions to associated independent scientific investigators or research organizations that produce specific research consistent with the stated objectives of the Foundation. The Foundation was established partly in response to the rapidly deteriorating natural environment and its deleterious effects on populations of turtles and tortoises of the world as well as the threatening effects of direct human exploitation on turtles and tortoises around the world, and partly in response to the global need for systematic scientific investigations and documentation of the diversity of these animals. The broad purpose of the Foundation is to become involved where the energies of concerned and talented individuals and the application of resources may reasonably be anticipated to provide a scientific basis to allow for potential improvement in conditions or increased understanding of turtles and tortoises.</p> <p align="justify"> </p> CHARACTERISTICS OF PATIENTS WITH PANIC DISORDERS P THERE IS HYPERTHYROIDISM ACCOMPANIED BY TONSIL HYPERTROPHY AND THYROID EYE DISEASE WITH ECG PICTURE SICK DYSFUNCTION NODE 2024-01-19T08:48:25+00:00 R. Mohamad Javier 1*, Satrio Wicaksono 2, Basyar Adnani 3, Nabila Ramadina 4, Kelvin Florentino Kaisar 5, Moh Iqbal Setiawan 6, Arief Dewantara 7, Asti Yumna Adiningrum 8, Vania Putri Salsabilla 9, Budi Prakoso 10, Pertiwi Febriana Chandrawati 11, Subandono Bambang Indrasto 12 <p>Background: Hyperthyroidism is an endocrine disorder with the second highest incidence rate after diabetes, and Graves' disease is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism. Objective: To determine the characteristics of patients with panic disorder in hyperthyroidism with an ECG picture of sick node dysfunction. Methods: This study is a Systematic Review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis or com method. This method is carried out systematically following the correct stages or research protocols. The source was taken from the PubMed site, and the Google Scholar site with journals published in 201 7-2022 and then filtered the results as many as 15,486. Results: Journal clustering was carried out and obtained the number of journals indexed in Scopus Q1 as many as 2 journals, Q2 as many as 2 journals, indexed Sinta S1 as many as 1 journal, so that there were 5 extracted journals. Conclusion: The majority of journals discuss age and lifestyle associated with the characteristics of panic disorder, as well as the factors of hyperthyroidism determined by age, and hyperthyroidism associated with panic disorder, ECG picture of sick node dysfunction.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong><em> Characteristics Patients, Hyperthyroid</em>, Panic disorders, Sick Nodus Dysfunction<em>, </em>Hyperthyroidism.</p> 2024-01-19T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation ISOLATION AND PARTIAL PURIFICATION OF CYCLOOXYGENASE-2 FROM BLADDER CANCER PATIENTS AND ESTIMATION OF ITS MOLECULAR WEIGHT 2024-01-21T11:19:00+00:00 Mohammed Hussin Mousa1, Mohammed Bahry Hasan2 <p>The study was carried out in the city of Mosul during the period 3/1/2022 until 6/1/2023 and included 75 people with bladder cancer, 68 males and 7 females, whose ages ranged between 50-80 years. The study included the isolation and purification of the cyclooxygenase-2 enzyme from blood serum. Patients with bladder cancer and studying its characteristics using techniques of salt displacement, membrane sorting, and ion exchange chromatography, and estimating its approximate molecular weight by electromigration technique. The study was carried out in the laboratories of the College of Science/University of Mosul. The results showed the presence of one distinct peak for the protein solution, and the purification process was relatively effective, with recovery of more than 50.82% of the enzyme activity. The approximate molecular weight was estimated using the electrophoretic migration technique, as a distinctive protein band was found that was used in estimating the approximate molecular weight of the enzyme, which is equal to (72). ) kilodaltons, and the optimal conditions for measuring enzyme activity were 5 minutes for reaction time, 7.5 for pH, temperature of 40°C, and 0.6 mM concentration of the substrate.</p> <p>Keywords: bladder cancer, cyclooxygenase-2, salt displacement precipitation, membrane sorting, ion exchange chromatography, electromigration technique</p> 2024-01-21T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation MANGROVE SPECIES DIVERSITY IN ARIYANKUPPAM ESTUARY, PUDUCHERRY, INDIA 2024-01-26T08:12:41+00:00 Silpa.P & Dr.T. Ramanathan* <p>True mangrove species and associate mangrove species are the two categories into which the plant life in a mangrove habitat is divided. While associated species are present in both the mangrove ecosystem and its environs, true mangrove species are exclusively found in mangrove wetlands. There are 69 plant species recognized to be true mangroves worldwide. The present study aim to find out the true mangrove diversity in Ariyamkuppam, Puducherry. Six true mangrove floral species from three families, three orders, and the same class were recorded. One true mangrove was threatened Species in IUCN Red data book.</p> 2024-01-26T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation COMPLEMENTARY AND ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE (CAM) ON DYSMENORRHEA: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW 2024-01-27T07:30:42+00:00 1Nilam Noorma, 2Masni, 3 Andi Zulkifli, 4Andi Mardiah Tahir <p>Objectives: This systematic review aimed to evaluate the current evidence regarding the complementary alternative medicine on primary dysmenorrhea.</p> <p>Method: This systematic review study used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 guidelines. The literature search was done using Google Scholar, Pubmed, and Science Direct. Articles that met the inclusion criteria were assessed using the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Checklist, including an explanation of sample size, explanation of sample methodology, calculation of response rate, findings/results measurement, explanation of the statistical analysis, confounding control, explanation of study limitations, and research ethics. Three independent reviewers participated in data extraction and assessment. Total of 20 out of 3,825 articles met the inclusion and exclusion criteria for review.</p> <p>Results:&nbsp; This review included 36 RCTs; the meta-analysis included 48 RCTs. Most studies showed a low or unclear risk of bias. The characteristic of the articles is the use of a clinical/controlled trial and quasi-experimental study design with the intervention target being the complementary alternative medicine on primary dysmenorrhea, the quality of the articles is categorized as good, and the measurement tools used are questionnaires and interviews. The cause of primary dysmenorrhea is often associated with high levels of inflammation in the endometrium. Elevated prostaglandin levels respond to the rise and fall of progesterone after ovulation. Overproduction of prostaglandins in the endometrium will result in hypercontractility and vasoconstriction of the myometrium. Vasoconstriction of the uterine blood vessels will reduce blood flow, muscle ischemia, and increase sensitivity to pain receptors, all of which cause period pain. Prostaglandin levels in adolescents with dysmenorrhea were twice as high as those without dysmenorrhea</p> <p>Conclusion: The results of this study suggest that acupuncture might reduce menstrual pain and associated symptoms more effectively compared with no treatment or NSAIDs, and the efficacy could be maintained during a short-term follow-up period.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: complementary and alternative medicine; dysmenorrhea; students</p> 2024-01-27T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation PROMOTION OF DENTAL AND ORAL HEALTH THROUGH THE GIGIKU SEHAT APPLICATION AND HEALTHY DENTAL GYMNASTICS WITH TEACHER ASSISTANCE ON TEETH CLEANING ACTIONS TO PREVENT CARIES IN CHILDREN AGED 10-13 YEARS 2024-02-01T01:47:01+00:00 Muhammad Nurung1, Andi Zulkifli2, Sudirman Nasir3, Wahiduddin4, Santi Martini5, Harun Achmad6, Anwar Mallongi7, Fridawaty Rivai8 <p><strong>BACKGROUND:</strong> Caries is one of the chronic diseases experienced by 2.4 billion or 36% of the world's population. Globally, school children who experience caries account for 60%-90% due to lack of health promotion. Mobile mobile&nbsp; is one of the health promotions that can improve the degree of public health.</p> <p><strong>AIM:</strong> Knowing the effect&nbsp; of the application of healthy teeth&nbsp; and healthy dental gymnastics with teacher assistance on the act of cleaning teeth to prevent caries in children aged 10-13 years.</p> <p><strong>METHOD:</strong> The study was conducted at Makassar City Elementary School, South Sulawesi in September 2022 - March 2023. The type of research is a mixed method with two stages of research, stage 1 making healthy dental applications with&nbsp; qualitative methods and stage 2 educational model intervention for 3 (three) months&nbsp; with quasi-experimental methods&nbsp; with&nbsp; the design of the non randomized pretest postest control group design. The number of samples were students of SD Hang Tuah 64 people, SDN Ujung Tanah 54 people and SDN Cambaya 49 people. The research group was divided into 3 (three) with teacher assistance, namely First is SD Hang Tuah with a combination intervention of healthy dental application&nbsp; and healthy dental gymnastics. The second is SDN Ujung Tanah with the intervention of my healthy teeth application. The third is SDN Cambaya with healthy dental gymnastics intervention.</p> <p><strong>RESULTS:</strong> The level of oral hygiene at SD Hang Tuah was significantly different before and after the intervention, while at SDN Ujung Tanah and SDN Cambaya there was no significant difference but there was a difference in mean value.&nbsp; The DMFT scores in the three schools have significant differences, especially&nbsp; the mean value&nbsp; in the Filling aspect&nbsp; has increased which is an indicator of increased awareness to treat caries.</p> <p><strong>CONCLUSION:</strong> The effect of dental health education&nbsp; with the application of healthy teeth and&nbsp; / or healthy dental gymnastics with teacher assistance statistically had a significant effect on SD Hang Tuah, while SDN Ujung Tanah and SDN Cambaya did not have a significant effect but there was a difference in mean values on improving oral hygiene. The DMFT value before and after the intervention statistically has a significant effect, especially in the Filling aspect, there is an increase in the mean value&nbsp; which is an indicator of increased awareness to treat caries.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong>&nbsp; Caries, oral health promotion, oral health behavior</p> 2024-02-01T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation ENSHRINEMENT SPATIAL PATTERN IN BUMIAYU TEMPLES (DESCRIPTION OF ENVIRONMENTAL ADAPTATION IN WET LAND) 2024-02-02T15:54:28+00:00 Sondang Martini Siregar <p>The Bumiayu temple is located in wetlands, but the temples are protected from puddles. The problem that arises are a) how is the location of Bumiayu temples, b) how is the network in Bumiayu temples area and c) how is the distribution of the Bumiayu temples. The purpose of this study was to analyze the spatial pattern of the Bumiayu enshrinement which shows that the people-built temples had adapted to nature. The specific aims are to analyze the morphography, morphometry, landform of the Bumiayu temples, b) to analyze water activity in Bumiayu temples c) to analyze the distribution and orientation of the Bumiayu temples. The qualitative method is used with descriptive and expansive reasoning, precisely the order using the Widyamanti classification (2016). The distribution/orientation of the temples uses data proximity analysis. The results showed that the Bumiayu temple area was lowland with an elevation of 11 masl - 20 masl and was on a rather sloping (8 % - 13 %). The landform consists of the river terrace, natural embankment, swamp. The enshrinement area consists of 4 rooms bordered by rivers and lakes. Location is in a group position and surrounded by canals that tributaries of the Lematang River. In the past, the community had managed the environment. They made canals to regulate water and transportation facilities in Bumiayu temple area. In addition, the canal also serves to fulfil practical and ritual needed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> pattern, wet land, temple Bumiayu</p> <p>&nbsp;</p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation THE APPLICATION OF DEEP LEARNING IN ANALYSING ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORDS FOR IMPROVED PATIENT OUTCOMES. 2024-02-02T15:55:54+00:00 Sathishkumar Chintala <p>Deep learning techniques like neural networks show promise for extracting insights from electronic health records (EHRs) to enhance clinical decision-making and improve patient outcomes. Recurrent and convolutional approaches demonstrate particular efficacy for predictive tasks based on longitudinal EHR data. However, significant barriers around model interpretability, data constraints, and real-world integration must still be addressed for broader adoption. This paper reviews recent literature on deep learning for EHR analysis including predictive modelling, imaging, and patient risk stratification. Based on promise but with challenges remaining, recommendations focus on methods to enable translation into clinical practice through improved user-centered design. If key next steps around transparency and standards are achieved, hybrid deep learning EHR systems hold immense potential to augment data-driven precision medicine.</p> <p><strong><em>Keywords:</em></strong> <em>Deep Learning, Electronic Health Records, Clinical Decision Support, Patient Stratification, Neural Networks, GAN, CNN, RNN</em></p> 2024-02-02T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation DOCUMENTATION OF FOLK KNOWLEDGE ON WILD EDIBLE PLANTS OF RAMPACHODAVARAM AGENCY DIVISION, ANDHRA PRADESH, INDIA 2024-02-03T09:50:12+00:00 Pampayya Thanthati1, Dr. S. Sandhya Rani2* <p>Folklore medicinal uses of 23 species of Wild edible plants belonging to 21 genera of 20 families for various ailments among the tribes of Rampachodavaram or Rampa agency division of Alluri Sitharama Raju (ASR) district, Andhra Pradesh is reported along with local name, mode of administration and prescribed doses. Local people use leaves, stem, flowers, fruits, seeds and roots as a part of their diet. Present study reveals the importance of 23 species of plants as they are eaten substantially by village folk as well as by city dwellers. It is desirable to bring these plants under organized agriculture as new crops to increase their production and utilization.</p> <p><strong>Keywords</strong>: Edible wild plants, Folk knowledge, Folk medicines, Tribal diet.</p> 2024-02-03T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation FORMULATON AND EVALUATION OF SOLID LIPID NANOPARTICLES CONTAINING DOXORUBICIN AND CURCUMIN-PREFORMULATION STUDIES AND ACTIVITY 2024-02-05T10:19:09+00:00 Rahul Singh,Vikrant Verma, Aadesh Kumar, Nidhi Dhama <p>Many controlled delivery strategies have been developed in recent years in an effort to increase the solubility, stability, and bioavailability of medications that are poorly absorbed. Lipid nanoparticles have particularly intriguing qualities when it comes to delivering drugs or genes. These systems, made up of lipids stabilized with surfactants. A flexible drug delivery method called solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) has been formulated with homogenization process and formulation was optimized .This work aimed to synthesize solid lipid nanoparticles containing curcumin and doxorubicin. Results were found satisfactory from the preformulation examination consisting of solubility studies, particle size and LOD with no incompatibility issues with the excipients. Entrapment of both drugs in SLNs have increased the pharmacological activity compare to that available in crude drug form. In-vitro release kinetics shows sustained release with initial burst effect. The linearity was established in the concentration of 0.2- 10μg/ml for curcumin and 0.015 - 62.50µg/mL for doxurubicin.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Chemotheraphy, Chromatogram,Solid lipid Nanoparticles,Doxorubicin, Anticancer agent, Curcumin</p> 2024-02-05T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2023 Chelonian Research Foundation MODULATORY EFFECT OF PTEROSTILBENE ON TAIL TENDON COLLAGEN IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC RATS 2024-02-06T13:54:29+00:00 Pidaran Murugan1*, Sivaprakasam Maneemegalai2 <p>Introduction: The research was determined to investigate on the effects of pterostilbene and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC) on the collagen content and its physical and chemical characteristics in the tail tendon of streptozotocin (STZ) induced diabetic rats.</p> <p>Purpose:&nbsp; Ptrerostilbene and THC has been tested clinically and found to be effective in non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus patients.</p> <p>Experimental design:&nbsp; In the experiment, a total of 24 rats (18 diabetic surviving rats, 6 normal rats) were used.&nbsp; The rats were divided into four groups of six each, after the induction of STZ diabetes.&nbsp; The experimental period was 45 days. Group 1: Normal rats. Group 2: Diabetic control rats. Group 3: Diabetic rats treated with THC (80 mg/kg body weight) in aqueous suspension daily using an intragastric tube for 45 days. Group 4: Diabetic rats treated with pterostilbene (40 mg/kg body weight) in aqueous suspension daily using an intragastric tube for 45 days</p> <p>Results: In the case of diabetic rats treated with pterostilbene and THC, the collagen content was significantly decreased.&nbsp; The extent of glycation, cross-linking and collagen linked fluorescence were significantly reduced.&nbsp; In addition to that, the collagen content in the  region as well as in the high molecular weight region in tail tendon was near normal when compared to diabetic control groups.&nbsp; The reduction in the advanced glycation and cross-linking of collagen in pterostilbene and THC treated rats to their antiperoxidative activity directly influence the collagen cross-linking and advanced glycation end products formation.</p> <p>Conclusion: The administration of pterosilbene and THC had a positive influence on the content of collagen and its properties in streptozotocin and nicotinamide diabetic rats. The pterosilbene administration was found to be more effective than THC.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> tetrahydrocurcumin, pterostilbene, collagen, streptozotocin, nicotinamide, blood glucose, plasma insulin</p> 2024-02-06T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation MICROMORPHOLOGICAL STUDY OF GLUME DIVERSITY OF CYPERACEAE IN WESTERN HIMALAYAN REGION OF PAKISTAN 2024-02-09T16:20:39+00:00 Iqra Shah1,3*, Hafiz Imran Fakhar1, Muhammad Qasim Hayat1*, Muhammad Shahbaz1, Madeeha Khan1, Beenish Anjum1, Kaleem Ullah1,2, Affan Ahmed, Umme Laila1, Saleem Haider1, Ammar Ashar1, Ijaz ul haq1, Jasia Farooq1 <p>Cyperaceae is cosmopolitan in distribution and widely distributed in western Himalayan regions of Pakistan, but limited studies have been conducted on identification &amp; classification of family at both molecular and morphological perspective. In this study western Himalayan region of Pakistan were explored to collect species previously not studied and submitted to Pakistan Museum of Natural History for future use. 20 species were selected from collection and different quantitative &amp; qualitative parameters were studied. Eight micromorphological features of specimens that includes glume shape, glume length, glume width, presence or absence of arista, glume color, midrib width, midrib color and detailed surface of glume; of these specimens were observed under light microscope and scanning electron microscope.&nbsp; These species showed 12 types of glume shape and great variation in color of both glume and midrib. Similarly, length and width of glume has wide range, and two types (Narrow, Broad) of midrib were observed in this study. Arista was present in most of species and were absent in only few species. On basis of this study, it can be said that glume morphology can be great help in correct differentiation of morphological identical species that looks similar but distinct. These results can play major role in identification of said region species at morphological level.</p> 2024-02-09T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation USE OF CODED QR AS A MODEL CHANGING THE BEHAVIOR OF TRADERS AND BUYERS TRADITIONAL PEOPLE'S MARKET 2024-02-10T09:07:52+00:00 1*Darwis, 2Dihamri, 3Fikitri Marya Sari, 4Ade SisscaVillia <p>Each stakeholder must manage healthy environmental quality through their duties and functions to achieve a clean, safe, comfortable, and healthy People's Market. Implementing healthy behavior by traders, buyers, and visitors to public markets is one effective way to create and control healthy public markets. Pocketbooks, videos, and posters are integrated into QR codes. This media contains guidelines for healthy public markets and for clean and healthy living behavior, which is expected to help the public increase compliance in keeping markets clean and healthy. This research aims to find out the delivery mechanism, media either through QR barcodes or other easy methods for buyers, traders, and visitors to understand to change their behavior using a quantitative descriptive approach. The population in this study were market residents (traders and buyers/market visitors). The sample in this study used a quota sampling technique of 40 people, data collection using closed questionnaires, quantitative descriptive data analysis in the form of percentages, QR Barcode submission to change the behavior of participating market residents to keep the people's market healthy, QR Code on the banner via WhatsApp social media. Benner QR Barkot is installed at all gates; video media is the easiest to learn and takes 2-3 days. WhatsApp groups and direct discussions are expected to be an alternative for evaluating healthy people's market implementation.</p> 2024-02-10T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation TRYPANOSOMES, A BLOOD PARASITE OF RAJIDAE (ELASMOBRANCHII, RAJIFORMES) OFF THE ALGERIAN COAST. 2024-02-12T14:58:05+00:00 Sabrina Kefil 1,2*, Safia Abla 1, Chahinez Bouguerche 3, Katia Yata 1, Philippe Grellier 4, Nadia Kechemir-Issad 2. <p>Trypanosomes were found from the blood of tow rajidean fishes (Raja miraletus and Raja asterias) off the central Algerian coast. We described shortly and illustrated this blood protozoan parasites, based on morphological characters. Light microscopy and Immunofluorescence were used for the observation and study of these parasites.&nbsp; Drawings were scanned and redrawn with Adobe Illustrator CS5.1. Specific characteristics such as&nbsp;&nbsp; and morphometric measurements are within the ranges given in previous description by Laveran and Mesnil 1904 of rajidean trypanosomes. Unfortunately, there is no vouchers available for comparison of rajidean Trypanosoma of the type host. Thus, as hosts are different, and localities are widely separated. This is the first record of Trypanosoma off Algerian cost.&nbsp;</p> <p><strong>KEY WORDS</strong>: -Protozoans, Parasites, Trypanosoma, Mediterranean Sea, Rajidae.</p> 2024-02-12T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation TO OBSERVE THE LOCALISATION OF PLACENTA IN RELATION TO PREVIOUS CESAREAN SECTION AND IT'S FETO-MATERNAL OUTCOME 2024-02-16T03:44:42+00:00 Dr. Radhika Parmar, Dr. Deepa Kirar, Dr. K Padma Sandeepthi, Dr.Yashika Jain <p><strong>Objective:</strong></p> <p>To observe the localization of placenta in relation to previous cesarean section and its feto-maternal outcome</p> <p><strong>Materials and method:</strong></p> <p>A cross sectional study was conducted among 246 Eligible participants (participants with previous LSCS and current pregnancy ≥ 20 weeks) Detailed history including menstrual history, obstetrics history, past history, personal history, marital history, family history of the patient was taken. General and obstetrical examination were carried out. All women were undergone to transvaginal or transabdominal ultrasound. Determining the placental location or any abnormal placentation with the transabdominal obstetric scan done between 28 weeks period of gestation and 42 weeks period of gestation, reassessed after 36 weeks or when patient presents in labor or with bleeding per vagina. The patients are followed up to delivery and the maternal and fetal outcomes are noted.</p> <p>&nbsp; <strong>RESULTS</strong></p> <p>&nbsp;The mean age of the study participants was 28.69 years among which 90.7% of the cases were booked History of previous one LSCS was reported among 71.1% of the women while 28.9% were having two LSCS. Placenta previa was observed among 14.2% of the women who had previous history of LSCS. Fundo-posterior and fundo-anterior placenta was seen among 37.8% and 14.6% of the women respectively. Fundo-lateral and low-lying placenta were seen among 24% and 9.3% of the women respectively. Placenta previa and accreta are the major factors for post-partum hemorrhage Proportion of preterm birth was 10.1% Proportions of meconium-stained liquor and poor APGAR score (&lt;7) were observed among 4.5% each of the study participants.</p> <p>Placenta previa was identified in 14.2% of women with a history of LSCS. To reduce the occurrence of placenta previa, it is important to reduce the number of primary cesarean procedures and promote vaginal births. For optimal care, if a patient must have c-section, routine prenatal examinations and identification of high-risk groups should be performed.</p> <p><strong>Keywords:</strong> Cesarean section, Placenta previa, Maternal outcome, Fetal outcome.</p> 2024-02-16T00:00:00+00:00 Copyright (c) 2024 Chelonian Research Foundation